H2 Database - JDBC Connection


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H2 is a JAVA database. We can interact with this database by using JDBC. In this chapter, we will see how to create a JDBC connection with H2 database and the CRUD operations with the H2 database.

Generally, there are five steps to create a JDBC connection.

Step 1 − Registering the JDBC database driver.

Class.forName ("org.h2.Driver"); 

Step 2 − Opening the connection.

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection ("jdbc:h2:~/test", "sa",""); 

Step 3 − Creating a statement.

Statement st = conn.createStatement(); 

Step 4 − Executing a statement and receiving Resultset.

Stmt.executeUpdate("sql statement"); 

Step 5 − Closing a connection.

conn.close(); 

Before moving on to create a full program, we need to add h2-1.4.192.jar file to CLASSPATH. We can get this jar from the folder C:\Program Files (x86)\H2\bin.

Create Table

In this example, we will write a program for create table. Consider a table named Registration having the following fields.

S.No Column Name Data Type NOT NULL Primary Key
1 ID Number Yes Yes
2 First Varchar(255) No No
3 Last Varchar(255) No No
4 Age Number No No

Following is an example program named H2jdbcCreateDemo.

import java.sql.Connection; 
import java.sql.DriverManager; 
import java.sql.SQLException; 
import java.sql.Statement;  

public class H2jdbcCreateDemo { 
   // JDBC driver name and database URL 
   static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.h2.Driver";   
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:h2:~/test";  
   
   //  Database credentials 
   static final String USER = "sa"; 
   static final String PASS = ""; 
  
   public static void main(String[] args) { 
      Connection conn = null; 
      Statement stmt = null; 
      try { 
         // STEP 1: Register JDBC driver 
         Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER); 
             
         //STEP 2: Open a connection 
         System.out.println("Connecting to database..."); 
         conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);  
         
         //STEP 3: Execute a query 
         System.out.println("Creating table in given database..."); 
         stmt = conn.createStatement(); 
         String sql =  "CREATE TABLE   REGISTRATION " + 
            "(id INTEGER not NULL, " + 
            " first VARCHAR(255), " +  
            " last VARCHAR(255), " +  
            " age INTEGER, " +  
            " PRIMARY KEY ( id ))";  
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);
         System.out.println("Created table in given database..."); 
         
         // STEP 4: Clean-up environment 
         stmt.close(); 
         conn.close(); 
      } catch(SQLException se) { 
         //Handle errors for JDBC 
         se.printStackTrace(); 
      } catch(Exception e) { 
         //Handle errors for Class.forName 
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally { 
         //finally block used to close resources 
         try{ 
            if(stmt!=null) stmt.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se2) { 
         } // nothing we can do 
         try { 
            if(conn!=null) conn.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se){ 
            se.printStackTrace(); 
         } //end finally try 
      } //end try 
      System.out.println("Goodbye!");
   } 
}

Save the above program into H2jdbcCreateDemo.java. Compile and execute the above program by executing the following commands in the command prompt.

\>javac H2jdbcCreateDemo.java 
\>java H2jdbcCreateDemo 

The above command produces the following output.

Connecting to database... 
Creating table in given database... 
Created table in given database... 
Goodbye!

After this execution, we can check the table created using the H2 SQL interface.

Insert Records

In this example, we will write a program for inserting records. Let us insert the following records into the table Registration.

ID First Last Age
100 Zara Ali 18
101 Mahnaz Fatma 25
102 Zaid Khan 30
103 Sumit Mital 28

Following is an example program named H2jdbcInsertDemo.

import java.sql.Connection; 
import java.sql.DriverManager; 
import java.sql.SQLException; 
import java.sql.Statement;  

public class H2jdbcInsertDemo { 
   // JDBC driver name and database URL 
   static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.h2.Driver";   
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:h2:~/test";  
   
   //  Database credentials 
   static final String USER = "sa"; 
   static final String PASS = ""; 
  
   public static void main(String[] args) { 
      Connection conn = null; 
      Statement stmt = null; 
      try{
         // STEP 1: Register JDBC driver 
         Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER);  
         
         // STEP 2: Open a connection 
         System.out.println("Connecting to a selected database..."); 
         conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS); 
         System.out.println("Connected database successfully..."); 
         
         // STEP 3: Execute a query 
         stmt = conn.createStatement();  
         String sql = "INSERT INTO Registration " + "VALUES (100, 'Zara', 'Ali', 18)"; 
         
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql); 
         sql = "INSERT INTO Registration " + "VALUES (101, 'Mahnaz', 'Fatma', 25)";  
         
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql); 
         sql = "INSERT INTO Registration " + "VALUES (102, 'Zaid', 'Khan', 30)"; 
         
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql); 
         sql = "INSERT INTO Registration " + "VALUES(103, 'Sumit', 'Mittal', 28)"; 
         
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql); 
         System.out.println("Inserted records into the table..."); 
         
         // STEP 4: Clean-up environment 
         stmt.close(); 
         conn.close(); 
      } catch(SQLException se) { 
         // Handle errors for JDBC 
         se.printStackTrace(); 
      } catch(Exception e) { 
         // Handle errors for Class.forName 
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally { 
         // finally block used to close resources 
         try {
            if(stmt!=null) stmt.close();  
         } catch(SQLException se2) { 
         } // nothing we can do 
         try { 
            if(conn!=null) conn.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se) { 
            se.printStackTrace(); 
         } // end finally try 
      } // end try 
      System.out.println("Goodbye!"); 
   } 
}

Save the above program into H2jdbcInsertDemo.java. Compile and execute the above program by executing the following commands in the command prompt.

\>javac H2jdbcInsertDemo.java 
\>java H2jdbcInsertDemo 

The above command produces the following output.

Connecting to a selected database... 
Connected database successfully... 
Inserted records into the table... 
Goodbye! 

Read Record

In this example, we will write a program for reading records. Let us try to read all records from the table Registration.

Following is an example program named H2jdbcRecordDemo.

import java.sql.Connection; 
import java.sql.DriverManager; 
import java.sql.ResultSet; 
import java.sql.SQLException; 
import java.sql.Statement;  

public class H2jdbcReadDemo { 
   // JDBC driver name and database URL 
   static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.h2.Driver";   
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:h2:~/test";  
   
   //  Database credentials 
   static final String USER = "sa"; 
   static final String PASS = ""; 
   
   public static void main(String[] args) { 
      Connection conn = null; 
      Statement stmt = null; 
      try { 
         // STEP 1: Register JDBC driver 
         Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER); 
         
         // STEP 2: Open a connection 
         System.out.println("Connecting to database..."); 
         conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);  
         
         // STEP 3: Execute a query 
         System.out.println("Connected database successfully..."); 
         stmt = conn.createStatement(); 
         String sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Registration"; 
         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); 
         
         // STEP 4: Extract data from result set 
         while(rs.next()) { 
            // Retrieve by column name 
            int id  = rs.getInt("id"); 
            int age = rs.getInt("age"); 
            String first = rs.getString("first"); 
            String last = rs.getString("last");  
            
            // Display values 
            System.out.print("ID: " + id); 
            System.out.print(", Age: " + age); 
            System.out.print(", First: " + first); 
            System.out.println(", Last: " + last); 
         } 
         // STEP 5: Clean-up environment 
         rs.close(); 
      } catch(SQLException se) { 
         // Handle errors for JDBC 
         se.printStackTrace(); 
      } catch(Exception e) { 
         // Handle errors for Class.forName 
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally { 
         // finally block used to close resources 
         try { 
            if(stmt!=null) stmt.close();  
         } catch(SQLException se2) { 
         } // nothing we can do 
         try { 
            if(conn!=null) conn.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se) { 
            se.printStackTrace(); 
         } // end finally try 
      } // end try 
      System.out.println("Goodbye!"); 
   } 
}

Save the above program into H2jdbcReadDemo.java. Compile and execute the above program by executing the following commands in the command prompt.

\>javac H2jdbcReadDemo.java 
\>java H2jdbcReadDemo 

The above command produces the following output.

Connecting to a selected database... 
Connected database successfully... 
ID: 100, Age: 18, First: Zara, Last: Ali 
ID: 101, Age: 25, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma 
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan 
ID: 103, Age: 28, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal 
Goodbye!

Update Records

In this example, we will write a program to update records. Let us try to read all records from the table Registration.

Following is an example program named H2jdbcUpdateDemo.

import java.sql.Connection; 
import java.sql.DriverManager; 
import java.sql.ResultSet; 
import java.sql.SQLException; 
import java.sql.Statement;  

public class H2jdbcUpdateDemo { 
   // JDBC driver name and database URL 
   static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.h2.Driver";   
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:h2:~/test";  
   
   // Database credentials 
   static final String USER = "sa"; 
   static final String PASS = ""; 
   
   public static void main(String[] args) { 
      Connection conn = null; 
      Statement stmt = null; 
      try { 
         // STEP 1: Register JDBC driver 
         Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER); 
         
         // STEP 2: Open a connection 
         System.out.println("Connecting to a database..."); 
         conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);  
         
         // STEP 3: Execute a query 
         System.out.println("Connected database successfully..."); 
         stmt = conn.createStatement(); 
         String sql = "UPDATE Registration " + "SET age = 30 WHERE id in (100, 101)"; 
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);  
         
         // Now you can extract all the records 
         // to see the updated records 
         sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Registration"; 
         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);  
         
         while(rs.next()){ 
            // Retrieve by column name 
            int id  = rs.getInt("id"); 
            int age = rs.getInt("age"); 
            String first = rs.getString("first"); 
            String last = rs.getString("last");  
            
            // Display values 
            System.out.print("ID: " + id); 
            System.out.print(", Age: " + age); 
            System.out.print(", First: " + first); 
            System.out.println(", Last: " + last); 
         } 
         rs.close();    
      } catch(SQLException se) { 
         // Handle errors for JDBC 
         se.printStackTrace(); 
      } catch(Exception e) { 
         // Handle errors for Class.forName 
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally { 
         // finally block used to close resources  
         try { 
            if(stmt!=null) stmt.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se2) { 
         } // nothing we can do 
         try { 
            if(conn!=null) conn.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se) { 
            se.printStackTrace(); 
         } // end finally try 
      } // end try 
      System.out.println("Goodbye!"); 
   } 
} 

Save the above program into H2jdbcUpdateDemo.java. Compile and execute the above program by executing the following commands in the command prompt.

\>javac H2jdbcUpdateDemo.java 
\>java H2jdbcUpdateDemo 

The above command produces the following output.

Connecting to a selected database... 
Connected database successfully... 
ID: 100, Age: 30, First: Zara, Last: Ali 
ID: 101, Age: 30, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma 
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan 
ID: 103, Age: 28, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal 
Goodbye!

Delete Records

In this example, we will write a program to delete records. Let us try to read all records from the table Registration.

Following is an example program named H2jdbcDeleteDemo.

import java.sql.Connection; 
import java.sql.DriverManager; 
import java.sql.ResultSet; 
import java.sql.SQLException; 
import java.sql.Statement;  

public class H2jdbcDeleteDemo { 
   // JDBC driver name and database URL 
   static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.h2.Driver";   
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:h2:~/test";  
   
   // Database credentials 
   static final String USER = "sa"; 
   static final String PASS = ""; 
  
   public static void main(String[] args) { 
      Connection conn = null; 
      Statement stmt = null; 
      try { 
         // STEP 1: Register JDBC driver 
         Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER);  
         
         // STEP 2: Open a connection 
         System.out.println("Connecting to database..."); 
         conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);  
         
         // STEP 3: Execute a query
         System.out.println("Creating table in given database..."); 
         stmt = conn.createStatement();  
         String sql = "DELETE FROM Registration " + "WHERE id = 101"; 
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);  
         
         // Now you can extract all the records 
         // to see the remaining records 
         sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Registration"; 
         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);  
         
         while(rs.next()){ 
            // Retrieve by column name 
            int id  = rs.getInt("id"); 
            int age = rs.getInt("age"); 
            String first = rs.getString("first"); 
            String last = rs.getString("last");  
            
            // Display values 
            System.out.print("ID: " + id); 
            System.out.print(", Age: " + age); 
            System.out.print(", First: " + first); 
            System.out.println(", Last: " + last); 
         } 
         rs.close(); 
      } catch(SQLException se) { 
         // Handle errors for JDBC 
         se.printStackTrace();  
      } catch(Exception e) { 
         // Handle errors for Class.forName 
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally { 
         // finally block used to close resources 
         try { 
            if(stmt!=null) stmt.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se2) { 
         } // nothing we can do 
         try { 
            if(conn!=null) conn.close(); 
         } catch(SQLException se) { 
            se.printStackTrace(); 
         } // end finally try
      } // end try 
      System.out.println("Goodbye!"); 
   } 
}

Save the above program into H2jdbcDeleteDemo.java. Compile and execute the above program by executing the following commands in the command prompt.

\>javac H2jdbcDeleteDemo.java 
\>java H2jdbcDeleteDemo

The above command produces the following output.

Connecting to a selected database... 
Connected database successfully... 
ID: 100, Age: 30, First: Zara, Last: Ali 
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan 
ID: 103, Age: 28, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal 
Goodbye! 


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