# Fortran - Data Types

Fortran provides five intrinsic data types, however, you can derive your own data types as well. The five intrinsic types are:

- Integer type
- Real type
- Complex type
- Logical type
- Character type

## Integer Type

The integer types can hold only integer values. The following example extracts the largest value that can be held in a usual four byte integer:

program testingInt implicit none integer :: largeval print *, huge(largeval) end program testingInt

When you compile and execute the above program it produces the following result:

2147483647

Note that the **huge()** function gives the largest number that can be held by the specific integer data type. You can also specify the number of bytes using the **kind** specifier. The following example demonstrates this:

program testingInt implicit none !two byte integer integer(kind=2) :: shortval !four byte integer integer(kind=4) :: longval !eight byte integer integer(kind=8) :: verylongval !sixteen byte integer integer(kind=16) :: veryverylongval !default integer integer :: defval print *, huge(shortval) print *, huge(longval) print *, huge(verylongval) print *, huge(veryverylongval) print *, huge(defval) end program testingInt

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result:

32767 2147483647 9223372036854775807 170141183460469231731687303715884105727 2147483647

## Real Type

It stores the floating point numbers, such as 2.0, 3.1415, -100.876, etc.

Traditionally there are two different real types, the default **real** type and **double precision** type.

However, Fortran 90/95 provides more control over the precision of real and integer data types through the**kind**specifier, which we will study in the chapter on Numbers.

The following example shows the use of real data type:

program division implicit none ! Define real variables real :: p, q, realRes ! Define integer variables integer :: i, j, intRes ! Assigning values p = 2.0 q = 3.0 i = 2 j = 3 ! floating point division realRes = p/q intRes = i/j print *, realRes print *, intRes end program division

When you compile and execute the above program it produces the following result:

0.666666687 0

## Complex Type

This is used for storing complex numbers. A complex number has two parts, the real part and the imaginary part. Two consecutive numeric storage units store these two parts.

For example, the complex number (3.0, -5.0) is equal to 3.0 – 5.0i

We will discuss Complex types in more detail, in the Numbers chapter.

## Logical Type

There are only two logical values: **.true.** and **.false.**

## Character Type

The character type stores characters and strings. The length of the string can be specified by len specifier. If no length is specified, it is 1.

**For example,**

character (len=40) :: name name = “Zara Ali”

The expression, **name(1:4)** would give the substring “Zara”.

## Implicit Typing

Older versions of Fortran allowed a feature called implicit typing, i.e., you do not have to declare the variables before use. If a variable is not declared, then the first letter of its name will determine its type.

Variable names starting with i, j, k, l, m, or n, are considered to be for integer variable and others are real variables. However, you must declare all the variables as it is good programming practice. For that you start your program with the statement:

implicit none

This statement turns off implicit typing.