Fleury’s Algorithm for printing Eulerian Path or Circuit in C++

C++Server Side ProgrammingProgramming

Fleury’s Algorithm is used to display the Euler path or Euler circuit from a given graph. In this algorithm, starting from one edge, it tries to move other adjacent vertices by removing the previous vertices. Using this trick, the graph becomes simpler in each step to find the Euler path or circuit.

We have to check some rules to get the path or circuit −

  • The graph must be a Euler Graph.
  • When there are two edges, one is bridge, another one is non-bridge, we have to choose non-bridge at first.s

Choosing of starting vertex is also tricky, we cannot use any vertex as starting vertex, if the graph has no odd degree vertices, we can choose any vertex as start point, otherwise when one vertex has odd degree, we have to choose that one first.

Input − Adjacency matrix of a graph

01111
10111
11011
11101
11110

Output − Euler Path or Circuit: 1--0 0--2 2--1 1--3 3--0 0--4 4--3 3—2

Algorithm

findStartVert(graph)
Input: The given graph.
Output: Find the starting vertex to start algorithm.
Begin
   for all vertex i, in the graph, do
      deg := 0
      for all vertex j, which are adjacent with i, do
         deg := deg + 1
      done
      if deg is odd, then
         return i
      done
      when all degree is even return 0
End
isBridge(u, v)
Input: The start and end node.
Output: True when u and v are forming a bridge.
Begin
   deg := 0
   for all vertex i which are adjacent with v, do
      deg := deg + 1
   done
   if deg > 1, then
      return false
   return true
End
fleuryAlgorithm(start)
Input: The starting vertex.
Output: Display the Euler path or circuit.
Begin
   edge := get the number of edges in the graph //it will not initialize in next
   recursion call
   for all vertex v, which are adjacent with start, do
      if edge <= 1 OR isBridge(start, v) is false, then
         display path from start and v
         remove edge (start,v) from the graph
         decrease edge by 1
         fleuryAlgorithm(v)
   done
End

Example

 Live Demo

#include<iostream>
#include<vector>
#define NODE 5
using namespace std;
int graph[NODE][NODE] = {{0, 1, 1, 1, 1},
   {1, 0, 1, 1, 0},
   {1, 1, 0, 1, 0},
   {1, 1, 1, 0, 1},
   {1, 0, 0, 1, 0}
};
int tempGraph[NODE][NODE];
int findStartVert(){
   for(int i = 0; i<NODE; i++){
      int deg = 0;
      for(int j = 0; j<NODE; j++){
         if(tempGraph[i][j])
         deg++; //increase degree, when connected edge found
      }
      if(deg % 2 != 0) //when degree of vertices are odd
      return i; //i is node with odd degree
   }
   return 0; //when all vertices have even degree, start from 0
}
bool isBridge(int u, int v){
   int deg = 0;
   for(int i = 0; i<NODE; i++)
      if(tempGraph[v][i])
         deg++;
      if(deg>1){
         return false; //the edge is not forming bridge
      }
   return true; //edge forming a bridge
}
int edgeCount(){
   int count = 0;
   for(int i = 0; i<NODE; i++)
      for(int j = i; j<NODE; j++)
         if(tempGraph[i][j])
            count++;
   return count; //count nunber of edges in the graph
}
void fleuryAlgorithm(int start){
   static int edge = edgeCount();
   for(int v = 0; v<NODE; v++){
      if(tempGraph[start][v]){ //when (u,v) edge is presnt and not forming bridge
         if(edge <= 1 || !isBridge(start, v)){
            cout << start << "--" << v << " ";
            tempGraph[start][v] = tempGraph[v][start] = 0; //remove edge from graph
            edge--; //reduce edge
            fleuryAlgorithm(v);
         }
      }
   }
}
int main(){
   for(int i = 0; i<NODE; i++) //copy main graph to tempGraph
   for(int j = 0; j<NODE; j++)
   tempGraph[i][j] = graph[i][j];
   cout << "Euler Path Or Circuit: ";
   fleuryAlgorithm(findStartVert());
}

Output

Euler Path Or Circuit: 1--0 0--2 2--1 1--3 3--0 0--4 4--3 3—2
raja
Published on 25-Sep-2019 17:14:05
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