Different Operations on Processes

There are many operations that can be performed on processes. Some of these are process creation, process preemption, process blocking, and process termination. These are given in detail as follows −

Process Creation

Processes need to be created in the system for different operations. This can be done by the following events −

  • User request for process creation
  • System initialization
  • Execution of a process creation system call by a running process
  • Batch job initialization

A process may be created by another process using fork(). The creating process is called the parent process and the created process is the child process. A child process can have only one parent but a parent process may have many children. Both the parent and child processes have the same memory image, open files, and environment strings. However, they have distinct address spaces.

A diagram that demonstrates process creation using fork() is as follows −


Process Preemption

An interrupt mechanism is used in preemption that suspends the process executing currently and the next process to execute is determined by the short-term scheduler. Preemption makes sure that all processes get some CPU time for execution.

A diagram that demonstrates process preemption is as follows −

Process Preemption

Process Blocking

The process is blocked if it is waiting for some event to occur. This event may be I/O as the I/O events are executed in the main memory and don't require the processor. After the event is complete, the process again goes to the ready state.

A diagram that demonstrates process blocking is as follows −

Process Blocking

Process Termination

After the process has completed the execution of its last instruction, it is terminated. The resources held by a process are released after it is terminated.

A child process can be terminated by its parent process if its task is no longer relevant. The child process sends its status information to the parent process before it terminates. Also, when a parent process is terminated, its child processes are terminated as well as the child processes cannot run if the parent processes are terminated.