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Difference between Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Conductors
Electrical conductors can be classified as either ohmic or non-ohmic based on how they respond to resistance. Because ohmic conductors have a constant resistance over a wide range of applied voltages, the voltage placed across them directly affects how much current overflows through them. The resistance of non- Ohmic conductors varies with the applied voltage, and the current flowing through them isn't commensurable to the voltage.
Read this article to find out more about Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Conductors and how they are different from each other.
What are Ohmic Conductors?
Ohmic conductors are useful in electrical circuits and systems that call for exact and predictable regulation of current flow because of their constant resistance. Because they exhibit a constant resistance independent of the applied voltage, metal wires like copper and aluminium are examples of ohmic conductors. These conductors are often employed in electrical circuits because they offer precise and dependable control of the current flow.
One can measure the current flowing through a conductor and the voltage across the conductor. The voltage-to-current ratio can then be used to calculate the resistance. Many electrical and electronic devices, which include resistors, voltmeters, and ammeters, rely on ohmic conductors as key components.
What are Non-Ohmic Conductors?
Non-Ohmic conductors are also called as non-linear conductor, are substances whose resistance changes in response to the applied voltage. This means that the voltage which is applied across a non-ohmic conductor does not immediately affect the current flowing through it. A non-ohmic conductor's resistance is affected by the applied voltage's strength and direction, temperature, and other environmental factors.
Gas discharge tubes, thermistors, and semiconductors are a few examples of non-ohmic conductors. The resistance of semiconductors, which includes germanium and silicon, changes according to temperature, applied voltage, and the presence of impurities or other materials. The resistance of thermistors, a unique type of resistor, changes with temperature.
Non-ohmic conductors are used in a variety of operations, which include the temperature sensing, voltage regulation, and protection against overvoltage. They're also essential factors in electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, and voltage controllers.
Gas discharge tubes are filled with a gas that conducts electricity when a voltage is applied, producing a characteristic non-linear current voltage relationship.
Non-ohmic conductors are characterized by their resistance that changes with the applied voltage, which makes them useful in a variety of electrical and electronic operations where precise control of current inflow isn't necessary.
Difference between Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Conductors
The following table highlights the major differences between Ohmic Conductors and Non-Ohmic Conductors −
Materials with a constant electrical resistance over a broad range of applied voltages are known as ohmic conductors; they are also called linear conductors.
Non-Ohmic conductors are also called as non-linear conductors, are substances whose resistance changes in response to the applied voltage.
Metals, resistors, and nichrome wires are some of the examples of Ohmic conductors
Diodes, semiconductors, electrolytes, thyristors, transistors, and lamps are some of the examples of Non-Ohmic Conductors
Current and Voltage Slope
The Straight line is the slope between the current and voltage
The Curved line is the slope between the current and voltage
The relationship between the current and voltage is linear in the Ohmic conductors
The relationship between the current and voltage is not linear in the Non-Ohmic Conductors
In a nutshell, the resistance behavior of ohmic and non-ohmic conductors is different from one another. Non-ohmic conductors have a resistance that fluctuates with a change in the applied voltage, whereas ohmic conductors have a constant resistance that does not. This distinction is important in electrical circuit design and analysis because it influences how the current overflows and the operating voltage bears.
Non-ohmic conductors are used in a wide range of operations where fine control of current inflow isn't needed, while ohmic conductors are useful in electrical circuits where accurate and predictable control of current inflow is needed.
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