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Difference between Motor and Generator
The conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and electrical energy into mechanical energy is a necessary process in the industries as well as in our daily life. Electrical machines are used for the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy and mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Depending upon the type of electromechanical energy conversion, the electrical machines are divided in two types as,
- Electric Motor
- Electric Generator
In this article, we will explain the key differences between electric motor and electric generator. We also added a brief description of the motor and generator for your reference.
What is an Electric Motor?
An electromechanical energy conversion device which converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy is known as electric motor.
An electric motor receives input electric power either from a direct current (DC) source such as battery, etc. or from an alternating current (AC) source such as power grid, AC generators, etc. Most of the electric motors operate by the interaction between a magnetic field and electric current in a wire to produce a torque.
An electric motor consists of two main parts viz. stator and rotor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor while the rotor is the rotating part of the motor to which a shaft is attached for driving a mechanical load.
Electric motors are used in many appliances such as electric fan, cooler, air-conditioner, electric cars, electric trains, cranes, etc.Electric motors are used in many appliances such as electric fan, cooler, air-conditioner, electric cars, electric trains, cranes, etc.
What is an Electric Generator?
An electromechanical energy conversion device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is known as electric generator.
The mechanical energy input to an electric generator is usually provided by steam turbine, gas turbine, water turbine, diesel engine, wind turbine, etc. The electric generators are also work on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
The generator also consists of two major parts, i.e. stator and rotor. The stator of the generator carries the armature winding in which the EMF is induced, while the rotor of the generator carries the field winding for creating magnetic field in the generator. The EMF is induced in the armature conductor when a rotating magnetic linked with it. The electric generators are used for providing a continuous supply of electricity for different applications.
Difference between Motor and Generator
Motors and generators are both electromechanical energy conversion devices, however there are many differences between an electric generator and an electric motor that are listed in the following table −
|Basis of Difference||Electric Motor||Electric Generator|
|Definition||An electric motor is an electromechanical energy conversion device that converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy.||An electric generator is an electromechanical energy conversion device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.|
|Types||Based on type of supply, the electric motors are of two types −||Based on the supply type, the electric generators are of two types −|
|Input||The input to an electric motor is the electrical energy obtained from different sources such as battery (DC), inverter, power grid, electric generator, etc.||The input to an electric generator is the mechanical energy, which is obtained from steam turbine, water turbine, gas turbine, IC engine, etc.|
|Output||The output of an electric motor is the rotational mechanical energy, which is used for deriving different types mechanical loads, such as pumps, etc.||The output of an electric generator is the electrical energy which is used for powering various electrical loads such as motors, lights, etc.|
|Operating principle||The operating principle of an electric motor is based on the interaction between a current carrying conductor and a magnetic field.||The operation of the electric generator is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.|
|Working||When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor will experience a force which move it.||When a conductor is moved in a magnetic field, the magnetic flux linked to the conductor changes which induces an EMF in the conductor.|
|Flaming's rule||In electric motor, Fleming's left-hand rule is used to determine the direction of rotation.||Fleming's right-hand rule is used in an electric generator to determine the direction of induced current.|
|Induced EMF||The induced EMF in the motor is known as 'back EMF', it is responsible for the production of torque in the rotor.||EMF is induced in the armature winding of the generator, which creates a potential difference between the load terminals.|
|Cause of rotation of shaft||The shaft of the electric motor is rotated by the electromagnetic torque produced by the interaction of current and magnetic field.||The shaft of the generator is rotated by some external mean such as steam turbine, water turbine, wind turbine.|
|Electricity||Motor consumes electricity.||Generator produces electricity.|
|Direction of current||In a motor, the current is supplied to the armature winding.||In the generator, current is taken out from the armature winding.|
|Applications||The electric motors are used in various applications such as fans, air conditioners, pumps, lifts, elevators, electric cars & bikes, electric traction, etc.||The electric generators are used for generating electric power in power generating stations, in industries, for testing purposes in laboratories, for charging the batteries, etc.|
Motors and generators are electromechanical energy conversion systems which are extensively used for conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice-versa. The most significant difference between a motor and a generator is in their working, that is a motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, whereas a generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
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