C++ Program to Sort an Array of 10 Elements Using Heap Sort Algorithm

C++ProgrammingServer Side Programming

Heap Sort is based on the binary heap data structure. In the binary heap the child nodes of a parent node are smaller than or equal to it in the case of a max heap, and the child nodes of a parent node are greater than or equal to it in the case of a min heap.

An example that explains all the steps in Heap Sort is as follows.

The original array with 10 elements before sorting is −

207154101590237725

This array is built into a binary max heap using max-heapify. This max heap represented as an array is given as follows.

907720542515123710

The root element of the max heap is extracted and placed at the end of the array. Then max heapify is called to convert the rest of the elements into a max heap. This is done until finally the sorted array is obtained which is given as follows −

171015202325547790

The program to sort an array of 10 elements using the heap sort algorithm is given as follows.

Example

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
void heapify(int arr[], int n, int i) {
   int temp;
   int largest = i;
   int l = 2 * i + 1;
   int r = 2 * i + 2;
   if (l < n && arr[l] > arr[largest])
      largest = l;
   if (r < n && arr[r] > arr[largest])
      largest = r;
   if (largest != i) {
      temp = arr[i];
      arr[i] = arr[largest];
      arr[largest] = temp;
      heapify(arr, n, largest);
   }
}
void heapSort(int arr[], int n) {
   int temp;
   for (int i = n / 2 - 1; i >= 0; i--)
      heapify(arr, n, i);
   for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
      temp = arr[0];
      arr[0] = arr[i];
      arr[i] = temp;
      heapify(arr, i, 0);
   }
}
int main() {
   int arr[] = { 20, 7, 1, 54, 10, 15, 90, 23, 77, 25};
   int n = 10;
i   nt i;
   cout<<"Given array is: "<<endl;
   for (i = 0; i *lt; n; i++)
   cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
   cout<<endl;
   heapSort(arr, n);
   printf("\nSorted array is: \n");
   for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
   cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
}

Output

Given array is:
20 7 1 54 10 15 90 23 77 25
Sorted array is:
1 7 10 15 20 23 25 54 77 90

In the above program, the function heapify() is used to convert the elements into a heap. This function is a recursive function and it creates a max heap starting from the element it is called on i.e. i in this case. The code snippet demonstrating this is given as follows.

void heapify(int arr[], int n, int i) {
   int temp;
   int largest = i;
   int l = 2 * i + 1;
   int r = 2 * i + 2;
   if (l < n && arr[l] > arr[largest])
      largest = l;
   if (r < n && arr[r] > arr[largest])
      largest = r;
   if (largest != i) {
      temp = arr[i];
      arr[i] = arr[largest];
      arr[largest] = temp;
      heapify(arr, n, largest);
   }
}

The function heapSort() of sorts the array elements using heap sort. It starts from the non-leaf nodes and calls the heapify() on each of them. This converts the array into a binary max heap. This is shown as follows −

for (int i = n / 2 - 1; i >= 0; i--)
heapify(arr, n, i);

After this, the function heapSort() takes the root element in each iteration of the for loop and puts it at the end of the array. Then heapify() is called to make sure the rest of the elements are a max heap. Eventually, all the elements are taken out of the max heap using this method and a sorted array is obtained. This is shown as follows.

for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
   temp = arr[0];
   arr[0] = arr[i];
   arr[i] = temp;
   heapify(arr, i, 0);
}

In the function main(), first the array is displayed. Then, the function heapSort() is called to sort the array. This is given by the following code snippet.

cout<<"Given array is: "<<endl;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
cout<<endl;
heapSort(arr, n);

Finally, the sorted array is displayed. This is shown below.

printf("\nSorted array is: \n");
for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
raja
Published on 05-Oct-2018 12:10:43
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