Components of Information System

The information system is the process of correct management and flow of data in a system such that the information reaches its correct receiver. It also collects data, analyzes them, and communicates the appropriate information to users of the information system. It is mostly used in organizations for data collection and distribution. It is also used to establish a communication system with customers to manage various operations.

It is a collection of hardware, software, and other elements which work together in correct sync to establish its fundamental requirement. This system accepts various formats of data and performs different types of operations on them to make them products that will be sent to other users. The final result thus obtained can be used to take various decisions related to the market, and also helps organize and visualize various scenarios.


The types of Information Systems are as follows −

  • Operations support systems

  • Management IS

  • Decision support systems

  • Executive IS


The 5 major components of IS that help in its processing are as follows −


According to the size and topology of the project, hardware pieces of equipment are designed. It comprises input and output devices, OS and processor, and media devices. Thus, the physical tools required for IS are the hardware elements. It also includes the external devices that need to be attached to the IS. Nowadays, the cost of hardware has decreased while its performance has enhanced, hence there is a high chance of hardware proficiency in information systems. The hardware elements can be broadly divided into two groups −

  • Computer systems − the central hardware components.

  • Peripheral devices − the devices which are connected externally to the main hardware elements.


The hardware devices are installed with software which makes them deliver the requirements. Hence, the application programs manage and establish coordination among the hardware elements to process and analyze the data inputs. The programs installed are called the software, comprising a set of rules which are to be followed. The software also manages the storage of media and resources. The software installed is of 3 types: system software, application software, and procedures. The task of system software is to make use of specific hardware while application software manages particular tasks for user accessibility.


The raw input accepted by the software which is further processed is called the data. The correct type of program is executed upon the accepted data to serve them to the user. The data after being processed turns out to be effective for the organization. Both the software and hardware need to work on sync to establish data processing and management. This process of correctly handling the data is called the Database management system. There is various software for the database so that it can access and manage the knowledge bases. The data properties can be broadly categorized into two groups −

  • Database − contains the analyzed data after several operations.

  • Knowledge base − the rules or facts about a certain feature or company situation.


The linkage between devices is done by the network for communication and data flow in the organization. A network is a combination of hardware (routers, hubs, and cable) and software (OS and different types of servers) elements. This element can also be referred to as telecommunication as it also contains various communicating devices and interconnecting devices and also software to manage and control all of these. It comprises a media through which communication is established and also a support for the network. The network elements can be broadly divided into two groups −

  • Communication media − the medium through which the communicating channels transmit like communication satellites or microwave signals.

  • Network support − the people or software that works with the hardware elements and network to support the process. It can also include data equipment.

Human resource

All of the automated elements discussed above require a human to manage and control them, these controlling heads are called the human resource team. The main aim of this team is to ensure maximum benefit to the end users. The end users are the customers who can be anything from accountants to clerks. The team of comprised of various sub-teams, which can be programmers, managers, analysts, or operators. The human resource team can be broadly divided into two groups −

  • End users or clients − the people who can only see the results.

  • System specialists − the team who works on the background to develop the correct results.


The various results of IS are used in our daily lives to make our organization technically sound and updated. Any business must expand while providing a secure data storage and analysis system which helps in taking balanced decisions. Also, communication and data sharing with the employees and the consumers can be easily done.

Updated on: 03-May-2023


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