Applications of Adhoc network and its problem

The Adhoc network is a wireless link connected without any fixed infrastructure or infrastructures. Communication is established instantly whenever needed. The node access each other in the network without a base station or fixed station access point. Also, the network is distributed in the local area network. Each node uses radio waves to communicate with each other. Eg:- WLAN, GSM, etc.

In a multi-hop distributed architecture, the terminals are connected. The nodes operate for routing, securing, key management, and addressing in an ad-hoc wireless network that does not have a centralized system. The transmission occurs through intermediate nodes from the source to an arbitrary destination. Eg:-WiFi. The term Adhoc means ‘for this purpose’ in Latin.


The ad-hoc network transmits information packets in a stored and forwarded manner from source to destination, therefore the ad-hoc is a peer-to-peer multi hob wireless network.

The nodes are free to move and can self-configure in ad-hoc networks.

Also with evolution in communication in the ad-hoc network give rise to lightweight devices that can increase widespread application. The classification of Adhoc is based on the operation or application.

Applications of Ad-Hoc Network

Ad-hoc network

The various applications of ad-hoc networks are discussed.

Mobile Ad-hoc network(MANET)

In this network, each device can independently move in any direction and associated other devices also can change the direction. The mobile ad-hoc network is self-configured continuously, with no fixed infrastructure.

MANET is a highly dynamic and autonomous topology containing nodes of different multiple transceivers to operate in single or larger networks. MANET is a wireless network on top of the link layer. This all features give the mobile ad-hoc network more popularity in laptop, mobile, etc applications.

MANET are four applications described as follows

  • Intelligent vehicular ad-hoc network(InVANET) − This network is designed using Artificial intelligence to avoid vehicle collisions, accidents, etc. The network behaves intellectually to move the vehicle on the road safely.

  • Vehicular ad-hoc network − The communication network between the vehicle and the vehicle act as nodes.

  • Internet-based MANET − This connects the fixed internet gateway nodes and mobile nodes.

  • Smartphone ad hoc network − For peer-to-peer communication using a smartphone without any fixed cellular network. In this network, all nodes are equal so anyone can leave the communication without altering the whole communication. It is based on the Mesh network concept.

Mobile Ad-hoc network characteristics

  • In Mobile network topology, nodes can stay or leave the network making it dynamic or active.

  • The self-governing behavior of each node sends or receives the message out of radio range in a multi-hop routing network.

  • In spontaneous behavior, human interference is less to configure the network.

  • The MANET is mobile and has a large user density.

  • The routing, security, and host configuration through the distributed operation of nodes as the firewall is absent.

  • Less power consumption and less memory make it an advantage for lightweight devices.

Mobile Ad-hoc network problem

  • The MANET is limited bandwidth and less range with lower capacity as compared to wired networks.

  • The ad-hoc routing lacks a routing algorithm. The topology is dynamic and the frequency of updating the routing table is low.

  • In the transmission, one can interfere with another node and overhear the transmission of a node occurs interrupting the transmission.

  • Due to geographical change of node, an out-of-date route generates unnecessary routing. In such a way it affects the routing table.

  • A high packet loss in the ad-hoc network due to hidden terminals, the collision of nodes, and dynamic nodes.

  • The ad-hoc network is prone to several security threats.

  • Other problems are multicasting due to changing positions having multiple hopes instead of the single hop, energy-constrained, exposed node problems.

Vehicular Ad-hoc network(VANET)

This network is the application of MANET. Here vehicles act as nodes that are connected by the self-organized network to increase driving safety and manage the traffic. The major goal of VANET is to improve road safety as it involves loss of lives and financial loss.

Application of VANET

  • Application on safety − It includes avoidance of collision, getting a signal for curve speed warning or lane speed warning, and Traffic management.

  • Application on the user − The peer-to-peer sharing services, internet connection, and other payment applications in the vehicle for infotainment.

  • Productivity − Time-saving, environment-relevant transport, and fuel-saving is efficient to increase vehicle productivity which an application helps to tackle in the VANET.

Problems related to VANET

Challenges with technical obstacles to be solved before VANET deployment −

  • Due to dynamic mobile network topology, network management is difficult.

  • Network congestion due to high traffic in rush hours results in collisions in the network.

  • Lack of security, and environmental impact on the electromagnetic waves which are used by VANET.

Intelligent vehicular ad-hoc network(InVANET)

Artificial intelligence is used for vehicle-to-vehicle communication(V2V). V2V is automobile technology for ad-hoc networks for long distances.

Adhoc network based on Bluetooth

Bluetooth technology to interconnect or communicate in short range. Wireless devices such as mobile, laptops, etc use Bluetooth ad hoc networking.


The ad-hoc network is free to move without any fixed infrastructure. It is easy to install for any small or temporary network and does not have an access point. In a multi-hop network, the nodes act as a router. The wireless network is mobile, reliable, and robust without any centralized system.

An ad-hoc collaboration with any other ad-hoc network and each node have equal status in the link range.

The operation of the IEEEE802.11 wireless network is always referred to in the ad-hoc network.

Updated on: 05-May-2023


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