Apache POI Quick Guide


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Apache POI Overview

Many a time, a software application is required to generate reports in Microsoft Excel file format. Sometimes, an application is even expected to receive Excel files as input data. For example, an application developed for the Finance department of a company will be required to generate all their outputs in Excel.

Any Java programmer who wants to produce MS Office files as output must use a predefined and read-only API to do so.

What is Apache POI?

Apache POI is a popular API that allows programmers to create, modify, and display MS Office files using Java programs. It is an open source library developed and distributed by Apache Software Foundation to design or modify Microsoft Office files using Java program. It contains classes and methods to decode the user input data or a file into MS Office documents.

Components of Apache POI

Apache POI contains classes and methods to work on all OLE2 Compound documents of MS Office. The list of components of this API is given below.

  • POIFS (Poor Obfuscation Implementation File System) : This component is the basic factor of all other POI elements. It is used to read different files explicitly.

  • HSSF (Horrible Spreadsheet Format) : It is used to read and write xls format of MS-Excel files.

  • XSSF (XML Spreadsheet Format) : It is used for xlsx file format of MS-Excel.

  • HPSF (Horrible Property Set Format) : It is used to extract property sets of the MS-Office files.

  • HWPF (Horrible Word Processor Format) : It is used to read and write doc extension files of MS-Word.

  • XWPF (XML Word Processor Format) : It is used to read and write docx extension files of MS-Word.

  • HSLF (Horrible Slide Layout Format) : It is used for read, create, and edit PowerPoint presentations.

  • HDGF (Horrible DiaGram Format) : It contains classes and methods for MS-Visio binary files.

  • HPBF (Horrible PuBlisher Format) : It is used to read and write MS-Publisher files.

This tutorial guides you through the process of working on Excel files using Java. Therefore the discussion is confined to HSSF and XSSF components.

Note : Older versions of POI support binary file formats such as doc, xls, ppt, etc. Version 3.5 onwards, POI supports OOXML file formats of MS-Office such as docx, xlsx, pptx, etc.

Like Apache POI, there are other libraries provided by various vendors for Excel file generation. These include Aspose cells for Java by Aspose, JXL by Commons Libraries, and JExcel by Team Dev.

Flavors of Java Excel API

This chapter takes you through some of the flavors of Java Excel API and their features. There are many vendors who provide Java Excel related APIs; some of them are considered in this chapter.

Aspose Cells for Java

Aspose Cells for Java is a purely licensed Java Excel API developed and distributed by the vendor Aspose. The latest version of this API is 8.1.2, released in July 2014. It is a rich and heavy API (combination of plain Java classes and AWT classes) for designing the Excel component that can read, write, and manipulate spreadsheets. The common uses of this API are as follows:

  • Excel reporting, build dynamic Excel reports
  • High-fidelity Excel rendering and printing
  • Import and export data from Excel spreadsheets
  • Generate, edit, and convert spreadsheets

JXL

JXL is a third-party framework designed for Selenium that supports data driven automation on web browsers (auto-update of data on web browsers). However it is also used as a common support library for JExcel API because it has basic features to create, read, and write spreadsheets. The basic features are as follows:

  • Generate Excel files
  • Import data from workbooks and spreadsheets
  • Obtain the total number of rows and columns

Note : JXL supports only .xls file format and it cannot handle large data volume.

JExcel

JExcel is a purely licensed API provided by Team Dev. Using this, programmers can easily read, write, display, and modify Excel workbooks in both .xls and .xlsx formats. This API can be easily embedded with Java Swing and AWT. The latest version of this API is Jexcel-2.6.12, released in 2009. The main features are as follows.

  • Automate Excel application, workbooks, spreadsheets, etc.
  • Embed workbooks in a Java Swing application as ordinary Swing component
  • Add event listeners to workbooks and spreadsheets
  • Add event handlers to handle the behavior of workbook and spreadsheet events
  • Add native peers to develop custom functionality

Apache POI

Apache POI is a 100% open source library provided by Apache Software Foundation. Most of the small and medium scale application developers depend heavily on Apache POI (HSSF + XSSF). It supports all the basic features of Excel libraries; however, rendering and text extraction are its main features.

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Apache POI Installation

This chapter takes you through the process of setting up Apache POI on Windows and Linux based systems. Apache POI can be easily installed and integrated with your current Java environment following a few simple steps without any complex setup procedures. User administration is required while installation.

System Requirements

JDK Java SE 2 JDK 1.5 or above
Memory 1 GB RAM (recommended)
Disk Space No minimum requirement
Operating System Version Windows XP or above, Linux

Let us now proceed with the steps to install Apache POI.

Step 1: Verify your Java Installation

First of all, you need to have Java Software Development Kit (SDK) installed on your system. To verify this, execute any of the two commands depending on the platform you are working on.

If the Java installation has been done properly, then it will display the current version and specification of your Java installation. A sample output is given in the following table.

Platform Command Sample Output
Windows Open Command Console and type:

Java version "1.7.0_60"

Java (TM) SE Run Time Environment

\>java –version

(build 1.7.0_60-b19)

Java Hotspot (TM) 64-bit Server VM

(build 24.60-b09,mixed mode)

Open command terminal and type: $java –version java version "1.7.0_25" Open JDK Runtime Environment (rhel-2.3.10.4.el6_4-x86_64) Open JDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.7-b01, mixed mode)

Step 2: Set your Java Environment

Set the environment variable JAVA_HOME to point to the base directory location where Java is installed on your machine. For example,

Platform Description
Windows Set JAVA_HOME to C:\ProgramFiles\java\jdk1.7.0_60
Linux Export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java-current

Append the full path of Java compiler location to the System Path.

Platform Description
Windows Linux
Append the String "C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_60\bin" to the end of the system variable PATH. Export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin/

Execute the command java -version from the command prompt as explained above.

Step 3: Install Apache POI Library

Download the latest version of Apache POI from http://poi.apache.org/download.html and unzip its contents to a folder from where the required libraries can be linked to your Java program. Let us assume the files are collected in a folder on C drive.

The following images show the directories and the file structure inside the downloaded folder.

Jar Jar

Add the complete path of the five jars as highlighted in the above image to the CLASSPATH.

Platform Description
Windows

Append the following strings to the end of the user variable

CLASSPATH:

“C:\poi-3.9\poi-3.9-20121203.jar;”

“C:\poi-3.9\poi-ooxml-3.9-20121203.jar;”

“C:\poi-3.9\poi-ooxml-schemas-3.9-20121203.jar;”

“C:\poi-3.9\ooxml-lib\dom4j-1.6.1.jar;”

“C:\poi-3.9\ooxml-lib\xmlbeans-2.3.0.jar;.;”

Linux

Export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:

/usr/share/poi-3.9/poi-3.9-20121203.tar:

/usr/share/poi-3.9/poi-ooxml-schemas-3.9-20121203.tar:

/usr/share/poi-3.9/poi-ooxml-3.9-20121203.tar:

/usr/share/poi-3.9/ooxml-lib/dom4j-1.6.1.tar:

/usr/share/poi-3.9/ooxml-lib/xmlbeans-2.3.0.tar

POI – Classes and Methods

This chapter explains a few classes and methods under the Apache POI API that are critical to work on Excel files using Java programs.

Workbook

This is the super-interface of all classes that create or maintain Excel workbooks. It belongs to the org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel package. The two classes that implement this interface are as follows:

  • HSSFWorkbook : This class has methods to read and write Microsoft Excel files in .xls format. It is compatible with MS-Office versions 97–2003.

  • XSSFWorkbook : This class has methods to read and write Microsoft Excel and OpenOffice xml files in .xls or .xlsx format. It is compatible with MS-Office versions 2007 or later.

HSSFWorkbook

It is a high-level class under the org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel package. It implements the Workbook interface and is used for Excel files in .xls format. Listed below are some of the methods and constructors under this class.

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

HSSFWorkbook()

Creates a new HSSFWorkbook object from scratch.

2

HSSFWorkbook(DirectoryNode directory, boolean preserveNodes)

Creates a new HSSFWworkbook objectinside a specific directory.

3

HSSFWorkbook(DirectoryNode directory, POIFSFileSystem fs, boolean preserveNodes)

Given a POIFSFileSystem object and a specific directory within it, it creates an SSFWorkbook object to read a specified workbook.

4

HSSFWorkbook(java.io.InputStream s)

Creates a new HSSFWorkbook object using an input stream.

5

HSSFWorkbook(java.io.InputStream s, boolean preserveNodes)

Constructs a POI file system around your input stream.

6

HSSFWorkbook(POIFSFileSystem fs)

Constructs a new HSSFWorkbook object using a POIFSFileSystem object.

7

HSSFWorkbook(POIFSFileSystem fs, boolean preserveNodes)

Given a POIFSFileSystem object, it creates a new HSSFWorkbook object to read a specified workbook.

The frequently used parameters inside these constructors are:

  • directory : It is the POI filesystem directory to process from.

  • fs : It is the POI filesystem that contains the workbook stream.

  • preservenodes : This is an optional parameter that decides whether to preserve other nodes like macros. It consumes a lot of memory as it stores all the POIFileSystem in memory (if set).

Note : The HSSFWorkbook class contains a number of methods; however they are compatible with xls format only. In this tutorial, the focus is on the latest version of Excel file formats. Hence, the class methods of HSSFWorkbook are not listed here. If you require these class methods, then refer POI-HSSFWorkbook class API at https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/hssf/usermodel/HSSFWorkbook.html.

XSSFWorkbook

It is a class that is used to represent both high and low level Excel file formats. It belongs to the org.apache.xssf.usemodel package and implements the Workbook interface. Listed below are the methods and constructors under this class.

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

XSSFWorkbook()

Creates a new XSSFworkbook object from scratch.

2

XSSFWorkbook(java.io.File file)

Constructs an XSSFWorkbook object from a given file.

3

XSSFWorkbook(java.io.InputStream is)

Constructs an XSSFWorkbook object, by buffering the whole input stream into memory and then opening an OPCPackage object for it.

4

XSSFWorkbook(java.lang.String path)

Constructs an XSSFWorkbook object given the full path of a file.

Class Methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

createSheet()

Creates an XSSFSheet for this workbook, adds it to the sheets, and returns the high level representation.

2

createSheet(java.lang.String sheetname)

Creates a new sheet for this Workbook and returns the high level representation.

3

createFont()

Creates a new font and adds it to the workbook's font table.

4

createCellStyle()

Creates a new XSSFCellStyle and adds it to the workbook's style table.

5

createFont()

Creates a new font and adds it to the workbook's font table.

6

setPrintArea(int sheetIndex, int startColumn, int endColumn, int startRow,int endRow)

Sets the print area of a given sheet as per the specified parameters.

For the remaining methods of this class, refer the complete API document at: http://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFWorkbook.html.for the complete list of methods.

Sheet

Sheet is an interface under the org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel package and it is a super-interface of all classes that create high or low level spreadsheets with specific names. The most common type of spreadsheet is worksheet, which is represented as a grid of cells.

HSSFSheet

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel package. It can create excel spreadsheets and it allows to format the sheet style and sheet data.

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

HSSFSheet(HSSFWorkbook workbook)

Creates new HSSFSheet called by HSSFWorkbook to create a sheet from scratch.

2

HSSFSheet(HSSFWorkbook workbook, InternalSheet sheet)

Creates an HSSFSheet representing the given sheet object.

XSSFSheet

This is a class which represents high level representation of excel spreadsheet. It is under org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel package.

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

XSSFSheet()

Creates new XSSFSheet - called by XSSFWorkbook to create a sheet from scratch.

2

XSSFSheet(PackagePart part, PackageRelationship rel)

Creates an XSSFSheet representing the given package part and relationship.

Class Methods

S.No. Methods and Description
1

addMergedRegion(CellRangeAddress region)

Adds a merged region of cells (hence those cells form one).

2

autoSizeColumn(int column)

Adjusts the column width to fit the contents.

3

iterator()

This method is an alias for rowIterator() to allow foreach loops

4

addHyperlink(XSSFHyperlink hyperlink)

Registers a hyperlink in the collection of hyperlinks on this sheet

For the remaining methods of this class, refer the complete API at: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFSheet.html.

Row

This is an interface under the org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel package. It is used for high-level representation of a row of a spreadsheet. It is a super-interface of all classes that represent rows in POI library.

XSSFRow

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It implements the Row interface, therefore it can create rows in a spreadsheet. Listed below are the methods and constructors under this class.

Class Methods

S.No. Description
1

createCell(int columnIndex)

Creates new cells within the row and returns it.

2

setHeight(short height)

Sets the height in short units.

For the remaining methods of this class, follow the given link https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFRow.html

Cell

This is an interface under the org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel package. It is a super-interface of all classes that represent cells in the rows of a spreadsheet.

Cells can take various attributes such as blank, numeric, date, error, etc. Cells should have their own numbers (0 based) before being added to a row.

XSSFCell

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It implements the Cell interface. It is a high-level representation of cells in the rows of a spreadsheet.

Field Summary

Listed below are some of the fields of the XSSFCell class along with their description.

Cell Type Description
CELL_TYPE_BLANK Represents blank cell
CELL_TYPE_BOOLEAN Represents Boolean cell (true or false)
CELL_TYPE_ERROR Represents error value on a cell
CELL_TYPE_FORMULA Represents formula result on a cell
CELL_TYPE_NUMERIC Represents numeric data on a cell
CELL_TYPE_STRING Represents string (text) on a cell

Class Methods

S.No. Description
1

setCellStyle(CellStyle style)

Sets the style for the cell.

2

setCellType(int cellType)

Sets the type of cells (numeric, formula, or string).

3

setCellValue(boolean value)

Sets a boolean value for the cell.

4

setCellValue(java.util.Calendar value)

Sets a date value for the cell.

5

setCellValue(double value)

Sets a numeric value for the cell.

6

setCellValue(java.lang.String str)

Sets a string value for the cell.

7

setHyperlink(Hyperlink hyperlink)

Assigns a hyperlink to this cell.

For the remaining methods and fields of this class, visit the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFCell.html

XSSFCellStyle

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It will provide possible information regarding the format of the content in a cell of a spreadsheet. It also provides options for modifying that format. It implements the CellStyle interface.

Field Summary

The following table lists a few fields that are inherited from the CellStyle interface.

Field Name Field Description
ALIGN_CENTER Center align the cell contents
ALIGN_CENTER_SELECTION Center-selection horizontal alignment
ALIGN_FILL Cell fit to the content size
ALIGN_JUSTIFY Fit cell contents to its width
ALIGN_LEFT Left align the cell contents
ALIGN_RIGHT Right align the cell contents
BORDER_DASH_DOT Cell style with dash and dot
BORDER_DOTTED Cell style with dotted border
BORDER_DASHED Cell style with dashed border
BORDER_THICK Cell style with thick border
BORDER_THIN Cell style with thin border
VERTICAL_BOTTOM Align the cell contents vertical bottom
VERTICAL_CENTER Align the cell contents vertical center
VERTICAL_JUSTIFY Align and justify the cell contents vertically
VERTICAL_TOP Top aligned vertical alignment

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

XSSFCellStyle(int cellXfId, int cellStyleXfId, StylesTable stylesSource, ThemesTable theme)

Creates a cell style from the supplied parts

2

XSSFCellStyle(StylesTable stylesSource)

Creates an empty cell Style

Class Methods

Sets the type of border for the bottom border of the cell

S.No Method and Description
1

setAlignment(short align)

Sets the type of horizontal alignment for the cell

2

setBorderBottom(short border)

3

setBorderColor(XSSFCellBorder.BorderSide side, XSSFColor color)

Sets the color for the selected border

4

setBorderLeft(Short border)

Sets the type of border for the left border of the cell

5

setBorderRight(short border)

Sets the type of border for the right border of the cell

6

setBorderTop(short border)

Sets the type of border for the top border of the cell

7

setFillBackgroundColor(XSSFColor color)

Sets the background fill color represented as an XSSFColor value.

8

setFillForegroundColor(XSSFColor color)

Sets the foreground fill color represented as an XSSFColor value.

9

setFillPattern(short fp)

Specifies the cell fill information for pattern and solid color cell fills.

10

setFont(Font font)

Sets the font for this style.

11

setRotation(short rotation)

Sets the degree of rotation for the text in the cell.

12

setVerticalAlignment(short align)

Sets the type of vertical alignment for the cell.

For the remaining methods and fields in this class, go through the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFCellStyle.html

HSSFColor

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.hssf.util package. It provides different colors as nested classes. Usually these nested classes are represented by using their own indexes. It implements the Color interface.

Nested classes

All nested classes of this class are static and each class has its index. These nested color classes are used for cell formatting such as cell content, border, foreground, and background. Listed below are some of the nested classes.

S.No. Class names (colors)
1 HSSFColor.AQUA
2 HSSFColor.AUTOMATIC
3 HSSFColor.BLACK
4 HSSFColor.BLUE
5 HSSFColor.BRIGHT_GREEN
6 HSSFColor.BRIGHT_GRAY
7 HSSFColor.CORAL
8 HSSFColor.DARK_BLUE
9 HSSFColor.DARK_GREEN
10 HSSFColor.SKY_BLUE
11 HSSFColor.WHITE
12 HSSFColor.YELLOW

Class Methods

Only one method of this class is important and that is used to get the index value.

S.No. Method and Description
1

getIndex()

This method is used to get the index value of a nested class

For the remaining methods and nested classes, refer the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/hssf/util/HSSFColor.html.

XSSFColor

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It is used to represent color in a spreadsheet. It implements the Color interface. Listed below are some of its methods and constructors.

Class Constructors

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

XSSFColor()

Creates a new instance of XSSFColor.

2

XSSFColor(byte[] rgb)

Creates a new instance of XSSFColor using RGB.

3

XSSFColor(java.awt.Color clr)

Creates a new instance of XSSFColor using the Color class from the awt package.

Class Methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

setAuto(boolean auto)

Sets a boolean value to indicate that the ctColor is automatic and the system ctColor is dependent.

2

setIndexed(int indexed)

Sets indexed ctColor value as system ctColor.

For the remaining methods, visit the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFColor.html.

XSSFFont

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It implements the Font interface and therefore it can handle different fonts in a workbook.

Class Constructor

S.No. Constructor and Description
1

XSSFFont()

Creates a new XSSFont instance.

Class Methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

setBold(boolean bold)

Sets a Boolean value for the 'bold' attribute.

2

setColor(short color)

Sets the indexed color for the font.

3

setColor(XSSFColor color)

Sets the color for the font in Standard Alpha RGB color value.

4

setFontHeight(short height)

Sets the font height in points.

5

setFontName(java.lang.String name)

Sets the name for the font.

6

setItalic(boolean italic)

Sets a Boolean value for the 'italic' property.

For the remaining methods, go through the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFFont.html.

XSSFHyperlink

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It implements the Hyperlink interface. It is used to set a hyperlink to the cell contents of a spreadsheet.

Fields

The fields of this class are as follows. Here, fields mean the types of hyperlinks used.

Field Description
LINK_DOCUMENT Used to link any other document
LINK_EMAIL Used to link email
LINK_FILE Used to link any other file in any format
LINK_URL Used to link a web URL

Class Methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

setAddress(java.lang.String address)

Hyperlink address.

For the remaining methods, visit the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFHyperlink.html

XSSFCreationHelper

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel package. It implements the CreationHelper interface. It is used as a support class for formula evaluation and setting up hyperlinks.

Class methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

createFormulaEvaluator()

Creates an XSSFFormulaEvaluator instance, the object that evaluates formula cells.

2

createHyperlink(int type)

Creates a new XSSFHyperlink.

For the remaining methods, refer the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/xssf/usermodel/XSSFCreationHelper.html.

XSSFPrintSetup

This is a class under the org.apache.poi.xsssf.usermodel package. It implements the PrintSetup interface. It is used to set print page size, area, options, and settings.

Class Methods

S.No. Method and Description
1

setLandscape(boolean ls)

Sets a boolean value to allow or block landscape printing.

2

setLeftToRight(boolean ltor)

Sets whether to go left to right or top down in ordering while printing.

3

setPaperSize(short size)

Sets the paper size.

For the remaining methods, visit the following link: https://poi.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/poi/hssf/usermodel/HSSFPrintSetup.html

POI – Workbooks

Here the term 'Workbook' means Microsoft Excel file. After completion of this chapter, you will be able to create new Workbooks and open existing Workbooks with your Java program.

Create Blank Workbook

The following simple program is used to create a blank Microsoft Excel Workbook.

import java.io.*;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.*;
public class CreateWorkBook 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      //Create Blank workbook
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      //Create file system using specific name
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("createworkbook.xlsx"));
      //write operation workbook using file out object 
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println("
      createworkbook.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Let us save the above Java code as CreateWorkBook.java, and then compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows:

$javac CreateWorkBook.java
$java CreateWorkBook

If your system environment is configured with the POI library, it will compile and execute to generate the blank Excel file named createworkbook.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output in the command prompt.

createworkbook.xlsx written successfully

Open Existing Workbook

Use the following code to open an existing workbook.

import java.io.*;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.*;
public class OpenWorkBook
{
   public static void main(String args[])throws Exception
   { 
      File file = new File("openworkbook.xlsx");
      FileInputStream fIP = new FileInputStream(file);
      //Get the workbook instance for XLSX file 
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(fIP);
      if(file.isFile() && file.exists())
      {
         System.out.println(
         "openworkbook.xlsx file open successfully.");
      }
      else
      {
         System.out.println(
         "Error to open openworkbook.xlsx file.");
      }
   }
}

Save the above Java code as OpenWorkBook.java, and then compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows:

$javac OpenWorkBook.java
$java OpenWorkBook

It will compile and execute to generate the following output.

openworkbook.xlsx file open successfully.

After opening a workbook, you can perform read and write operations on it.

POI – Spreadsheets

This chapter explains how to create a spreadsheet and manipulate it using Java. Spreadsheet is a page in an Excel file; it contains rows and columns with specific names.

After completing this chapter, you will be able to create a spreadsheet and perform read operations on it.

Create a Spreadsheet

First of all, let us create a spreadsheet using the referenced classes discussed in the earlier chapters. By following the previous chapter, create a workbook first and then we can go on and create a sheet.

The following code snippet is used to create a spreadsheet.

//Create Blank workbook
XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
//Create a blank spreadsheet
XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("Sheet Name");

Rows on Spreadsheet

Spreadsheets have a grid layout. The rows and columns are identified with specific names. The columns are identified with alphabets and rows with numbers.

The following code snippet is used to create a row.

XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow((short)1);

Write into a Spreadsheet

Let us consider an example of employee data. Here the employee data is given in a tabular form.

Emp Id Emp Name Designation
Tp01 Gopal Technical Manager
TP02 Manisha Proof Reader
Tp03 Masthan Technical Writer
Tp04 Satish Technical Writer
Tp05 Krishna Technical Writer

The following code is used to write the above data into a spreadsheet.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.TreeMap;
import org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel.Cell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class Writesheet 
{
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception 
   {
      //Create blank workbook
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      //Create a blank sheet
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet( 
      " Employee Info ");
      //Create row object
      XSSFRow row;
      //This data needs to be written (Object[])
      Map < String, Object[] > empinfo = 
      new TreeMap < String, Object[] >();
      empinfo.put( "1", new Object[] { 
      "EMP ID", "EMP NAME", "DESIGNATION" });
      empinfo.put( "2", new Object[] { 
      "tp01", "Gopal", "Technical Manager" });
      empinfo.put( "3", new Object[] { 
      "tp02", "Manisha", "Proof Reader" });
      empinfo.put( "4", new Object[] { 
      "tp03", "Masthan", "Technical Writer" });
      empinfo.put( "5", new Object[] { 
      "tp04", "Satish", "Technical Writer" });
      empinfo.put( "6", new Object[] { 
      "tp05", "Krishna", "Technical Writer" });
      //Iterate over data and write to sheet
      Set < String > keyid = empinfo.keySet();
      int rowid = 0;
      for (String key : keyid)
      {
         row = spreadsheet.createRow(rowid++);
         Object [] objectArr = empinfo.get(key);
         int cellid = 0;
         for (Object obj : objectArr)
         {
            Cell cell = row.createCell(cellid++);
            cell.setCellValue((String)obj);
         }
      }
      //Write the workbook in file system
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream( 
      new File("Writesheet.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println( 
      "Writesheet.xlsx written successfully" );
   }
}

Save the above Java code as Writesheet.java, and then compile and run it from the command prompt as follows:

$javac Writesheet.java
$java Writesheet

It will compile and execute to generate an Excel file named Writesheet.xlsx in your current directory and you will get the following output in the command prompt.

Writesheet.xlsx written successfully

The Writesheet.xlsx file looks as follows.

Writesheet

Read from a Spreadsheet

Let us consider the above excel file named Writesheet.xslx as input. Observe the following code; it is used for reading the data from a spreadsheet.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.util.Iterator;
import org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel.Cell;
import org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel.Row;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class Readsheet 
{
   static XSSFRow row;
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception 
   {
      FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(
      new File("WriteSheet.xlsx"));
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(fis);
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.getSheetAt(0);
      Iterator < Row > rowIterator = spreadsheet.iterator();
      while (rowIterator.hasNext()) 
      {
         row = (XSSFRow) rowIterator.next();
         Iterator < Cell > cellIterator = row.cellIterator();
         while ( cellIterator.hasNext()) 
         {
            Cell cell = cellIterator.next();
            switch (cell.getCellType()) 
            {
               case Cell.CELL_TYPE_NUMERIC:
               System.out.print( 
               cell.getNumericCellValue() + " \t\t " );
               break;
               case Cell.CELL_TYPE_STRING:
               System.out.print(
               cell.getStringCellValue() + " \t\t " );
               break;
            }
         }
         System.out.println();
      }
      fis.close();
   }
}

Let us keep the above code in Readsheet.java file, and then compile and run it from the command prompt as follows:

$javac Readsheet.java
$java Readsheet

If your system environment is configured with the POI library, it will compile and execute to generate the following output in the command prompt.

EMP ID EMP NAME DESIGNATION 
 tp01   Gopal    Technical Manager 
 tp02   Manisha  Proof Reader 
 tp03   Masthan  Technical Writer 
 tp04   Satish   Technical Writer 
 tp05   Krishna  Technical Writer

POI – Cells

Any data that you enter into a spreadsheet is always stored in a cell. We use the labels of rows and columns to identify a cell. This chapter describes how to manipulate data in cells in a spreadsheet using Java programming.

Create a Cell

You need to create a row before creating a cell. A row is nothing but a collection of cells.

The following code snippet is used for creating a cell.

//create new workbook
XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
//create spreadsheet with a name
XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("new sheet");
//create first row on a created spreadsheet
XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow(0);
//create first cell on created row
XSSFCell cell = row.createCell(0);

Types of Cells

The cell type specifies whether a cell can contain strings, numeric value, or formulas. A string cell cannot hold numeric values and a numeric cell cannot hold strings. Given below are the types of cells, their values, and type syntax.

Type of cell value Type Syntax
Blank cell value XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_BLANK
Boolean cell value XSSFCell.CELL.TYPE_BOOLEAN
Error cell value XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_ERROR
Numeric cell value XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_NUMERIC
String cell value XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_STRING

The following code is used to create different types of cells in a spreadsheet.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.util.Date;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class TypesofCells 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
       XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
       XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("cell types");
       XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 2);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("Type of Cell");
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue("cell value");
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 3);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type BLANK");
       row.createCell(1);
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 4);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type BOOLEAN");
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue(true);
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 5);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type ERROR");
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_ERROR );
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 6);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type date");
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue(new Date());
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 7);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type numeric" );
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue(20 );
       row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 8);
       row.createCell(0).setCellValue("set cell type string");
       row.createCell(1).setCellValue("A String");
       FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
       new File("typesofcells.xlsx"));
       workbook.write(out);
       out.close();
       System.out.println(
       "typesofcells.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Save the above code in a file named TypesofCells.java, compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac TypesofCells.java
$java TypesofCells

pIf your system is configured with the POI library, then it will compile and execute to generate an Excel file named typesofcells.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output.

typesofcells.xlsx written successfully

The typesofcells.xlsx file looks as follows.

Type Of Cells

Cell Styles

Here you can learn how to do cell formatting and apply different styles such as merging adjacent cells, adding borders, setting cell alignment and filling with colors.

The following code is used to apply different styles to cells using Java programming.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.util.HSSFColor;
import org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel.IndexedColors;
import org.apache.poi.ss.util.CellRangeAddress;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCellStyle;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class CellStyle 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("cellstyle");
      XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 1);
      row.setHeight((short) 800);
      XSSFCell cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell((short) 1);
      cell.setCellValue("test of merging");
      //MEARGING CELLS 
      //this statement for merging cells
      spreadsheet.addMergedRegion(new CellRangeAddress(
      1, //first row (0-based)
      1, //last row (0-based)
      1, //first column (0-based)
      4 //last column (0-based)
      ));
      //CELL Alignment
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(5); 
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell(0);
      row.setHeight((short) 800);
      // Top Left alignment 
      XSSFCellStyle style1 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      spreadsheet.setColumnWidth(0, 8000);
      style1.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_LEFT);
      style1.setVerticalAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_TOP);
      cell.setCellValue("Top Left");
      cell.setCellStyle(style1);
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(6); 
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell(1);
      row.setHeight((short) 800);
      // Center Align Cell Contents 
      XSSFCellStyle style2 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style2.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_CENTER);
      style2.setVerticalAlignment( 
      XSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_CENTER);
      cell.setCellValue("Center Aligned"); 
      cell.setCellStyle(style2);
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(7); 
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell(2);
      row.setHeight((short) 800);
      // Bottom Right alignment 
      XSSFCellStyle style3 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style3.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_RIGHT);
      style3.setVerticalAlignment( 
      XSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_BOTTOM);
      cell.setCellValue("Bottom Right"); 
      cell.setCellStyle(style3);
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(8);
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell(3);
      // Justified Alignment 
      XSSFCellStyle style4 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style4.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_JUSTIFY);
      style4.setVerticalAlignment(
      XSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_JUSTIFY);
      cell.setCellValue("Contents are Justified in Alignment"); 
      cell.setCellStyle(style4);
      //CELL BORDER
      row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 10);
      row.setHeight((short) 800);
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell((short) 1);
      cell.setCellValue("BORDER");
      XSSFCellStyle style5 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style5.setBorderBottom(XSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THICK);
      style5.setBottomBorderColor(
      IndexedColors.BLUE.getIndex());
      style5.setBorderLeft(XSSFCellStyle.BORDER_DOUBLE);
      style5.setLeftBorderColor( 
      IndexedColors.GREEN.getIndex());
      style5.setBorderRight(XSSFCellStyle.BORDER_HAIR);
      style5.setRightBorderColor( 
      IndexedColors.RED.getIndex());
      style5.setBorderTop(XSSFCellStyle.BIG_SPOTS);
      style5.setTopBorderColor( 
      IndexedColors.CORAL.getIndex());
      cell.setCellStyle(style5);
      //Fill Colors
      //background color
      row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 10 );
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell((short) 1);
      XSSFCellStyle style6 = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style6.setFillBackgroundColor(
      HSSFColor.LEMON_CHIFFON.index );
      style6.setFillPattern(XSSFCellStyle.LESS_DOTS);
      style6.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_FILL);
      spreadsheet.setColumnWidth(1,8000);
      cell.setCellValue("FILL BACKGROUNG/FILL PATTERN");
      cell.setCellStyle(style6);
      //Foreground color
      row = spreadsheet.createRow((short) 12);
      cell = (XSSFCell) row.createCell((short) 1);
      XSSFCellStyle style7=workbook.createCellStyle();
      style7.setFillForegroundColor(HSSFColor.BLUE.index);
      style7.setFillPattern( XSSFCellStyle.LESS_DOTS);
      style7.setAlignment(XSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_FILL);
      cell.setCellValue("FILL FOREGROUND/FILL PATTERN");
      cell.setCellStyle(style7);
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("cellstyle.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println("cellstyle.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Save the above code in a file named CellStyle.java, compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac CellStyle.java
$java CellStyle

It will generate an Excel file named cellstyle.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output.

cellstyle.xlsx written successfully

The cellstyle.xlsx file looks as follows.

CellStyle

POI – Fonts and Text Direction

This chapter explains how to set different fonts, apply styles, and display text in different angles of direction in an Excel spreadsheet.

Every system comes bundled with a huge collection of fonts such as Arial, Impact, Times New Roman, etc. The collection can also be updated with new fonts, if required. Similarly there are various styles in which a font can be displayed, for example, bold, italic, underline, strike through, etc.

Fonts and Font Styles

The following code is used to apply a particular font and style to the contents of a cell.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.util.HSSFColor;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCellStyle;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFFont;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class FontStyle 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("Fontstyle");
      XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow(2);
      //Create a new font and alter it.
      XSSFFont font = workbook.createFont();
      font.setFontHeightInPoints((short) 30);
      font.setFontName("IMPACT");
      font.setItalic(true);
      font.setColor(HSSFColor.BRIGHT_GREEN.index);
      //Set font into style
      XSSFCellStyle style = workbook.createCellStyle();
      style.setFont(font);
      // Create a cell with a value and set style to it.
      XSSFCell cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("Font Style");
      cell.setCellStyle(style);
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("fontstyle.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println(
      "fontstyle.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Let us save the above code in a file named FontStyle.java. Compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac FontStyle.java
$java FontStyle

It generates an Excel file named fontstyle.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

fontstyle.xlsx written successfully

The fontstyle.xlsx file looks as follows.

FontStyle

Text Direction

Here you can learn how to set the text direction in different angles. Usually cell contents are displayed horizontally, from left to right, and at 00 angle; however you can use the following code to rotate the text direction, if required.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCellStyle;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class TextDirection 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet(
      "Text direction");
      XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow(2);
      XSSFCellStyle myStyle = workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 0);
      XSSFCell cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("0D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      //30 degrees
      myStyle=workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 30);
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("30D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      //90 degrees
      myStyle=workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 90);
      cell = row.createCell(5);
      cell.setCellValue("90D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      //120 degrees
      myStyle=workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 120);
      cell = row.createCell(7);
      cell.setCellValue("120D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      //270 degrees
      myStyle = workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 270);
      cell = row.createCell(9);
      cell.setCellValue("270D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      //360 degrees
      myStyle=workbook.createCellStyle();
      myStyle.setRotation((short) 360);
      cell = row.createCell(12);
      cell.setCellValue("360D angle");
      cell.setCellStyle(myStyle);
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("textdirection.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println( 
      "textdirection.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Keep the above code in TextDirectin.java file, then compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac TextDirection.java
$java TextDirection

It will compile and execute to generate an Excel file named textdirection.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

textdirection.xlsx written successfully

The textdirection.xlsx file looks as follows.

TextDirectin

POI – Formula

This chapter takes you through the process of applying different formulas on cells using Java programming. The basic purpose of Excel application is to maintain numerical data by applying formulas on it.

In a formula, we pass dynamic values or locations of the values in the Excel sheet. On executing this formula, you get the desired result. The following table lists a few basic formulas that are frequently used in Excel.

Operation Syntax
Adding multiple numbers =SUM(Loc1:Locn) or =SUM(n1,n2,)
Count =COUNT(Loc1:Locn) or =COUNT(n1,n2,)
Power of two numbers =POWER(Loc1,Loc2) or =POWER(number, power)
Max of multiple numbers =MAX(Loc1:Locn) or =MAX(n1,n2,)
Product =PRODUCT(Loc1:Locn) or =PRODUCT(n1,n2,)
Factorial =FACT(Locn) or =FACT(number)
Absolute number =ABS(Locn) or =ABS(number)
Today date =TODAY()
Converts lowercase =LOWER(Locn) or =LOWER(text)
Square root =SQRT(locn) or =SQRT(number)

The following code is used to add formulas to a cell and execute it.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class Formula 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook.createSheet("formula");
      XSSFRow row = spreadsheet.createRow(1);
      XSSFCell cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("A =" );
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      cell.setCellValue(2);
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(2);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("B =");
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      cell.setCellValue(4);
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(3);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("Total =");
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      // Create SUM formula
      cell.setCellType(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_FORMULA);
      cell.setCellFormula("SUM(C2:C3)" );
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("SUM(C2:C3)");
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(4);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("POWER =");
      cell=row.createCell(2);
      // Create POWER formula
      cell.setCellType(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_FORMULA);
      cell.setCellFormula("POWER(C2,C3)");
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("POWER(C2,C3)");
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(5);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("MAX =");
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      // Create MAX formula
      cell.setCellType(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_FORMULA);
      cell.setCellFormula("MAX(C2,C3)");
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("MAX(C2,C3)");
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(6);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("FACT =");
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      // Create FACT formula
      cell.setCellType(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_FORMULA);
      cell.setCellFormula("FACT(C3)");
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("FACT(C3)");
      row = spreadsheet.createRow(7);
      cell = row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("SQRT =");
      cell = row.createCell(2);
      // Create SQRT formula
      cell.setCellType(XSSFCell.CELL_TYPE_FORMULA);
      cell.setCellFormula("SQRT(C5)");
      cell = row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("SQRT(C5)");
      workbook.getCreationHelper()
      .createFormulaEvaluator()
      .evaluateAll();
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("formula.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println("fromula.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Save the above code as Formula.java and then compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac Formula.java
$java Formula

It will generate an Excel file named formula.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

fromula.xlsx written successfully

The formula.xlsx file looks as follows.

Formula

POI – Hyperlink

This chapter explains how to add hyperlinks to the contents in a cell. Usually hyperlinks are used to access any web URL, email, or an external file.

The following code shows how to create hyperlinks on cells.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.common.usermodel.Hyperlink;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.util.HSSFColor;
import org.apache.poi.ss.usermodel.CreationHelper;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCellStyle;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFFont;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFHyperlink;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class HyperlinkEX 
{
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception 
   {
       XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
       XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook
       .createSheet("Hyperlinks");
       XSSFCell cell;
       CreationHelper createHelper = workbook
       .getCreationHelper();
       XSSFCellStyle hlinkstyle = workbook.createCellStyle();
       XSSFFont hlinkfont = workbook.createFont();
       hlinkfont.setUnderline(XSSFFont.U_SINGLE);
       hlinkfont.setColor(HSSFColor.BLUE.index);
       hlinkstyle.setFont(hlinkfont);
       //URL Link
       cell = spreadsheet.createRow(1)
       .createCell((short) 1);
       cell.setCellValue("URL Link");
       XSSFHyperlink link = (XSSFHyperlink)createHelper
       .createHyperlink(Hyperlink.LINK_URL);
       link.setAddress("http://www.tutorialspoint.com/" );
       cell.setHyperlink((XSSFHyperlink) link);
       cell.setCellStyle(hlinkstyle);
       //Hyperlink to a file in the current directory
       cell = spreadsheet.createRow(2)
       .createCell((short) 1);
       cell.setCellValue("File Link");
       link = (XSSFHyperlink)createHelper
       .createHyperlink(Hyperlink.LINK_FILE);
       link.setAddress("cellstyle.xlsx");
       cell.setHyperlink(link);
       cell.setCellStyle(hlinkstyle);
       //e-mail link
       cell = spreadsheet.createRow(3)
       .createCell((short) 1);
       cell.setCellValue("Email Link");
       link = (XSSFHyperlink)createHelper
       .createHyperlink(Hyperlink.LINK_EMAIL);
       link.setAddress( 
       "mailto:contact@tutorialspoint.com?"
      +"subject=Hyperlink");
      cell.setHyperlink(link);
      cell.setCellStyle(hlinkstyle);
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("hyperlink.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println("hyperlink.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Save the above code as HyperlinkEX.java. Compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac HyperlinkEX.java
$java HyperlinkEX

It will generate an Excel file named hyperlink.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

hyperlink.xlsx written successfully

The hyperlink.xlsx file looks as follows.

Hyperlink

POI – Print Area

This chapter explains how to set the print area on a spreadsheet. The usual print area is from left top to right bottom on Excel spreadsheets. Print area can be customized according to your requirement. It means you can print a particular range of cells from the whole spreadsheet, customize the paper size, print the contents with the grid lines turned on, etc.

The following code is used to set up the print area on a spreadsheet.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFPrintSetup;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class PrintArea 
{
   public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception 
   {
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook
      .createSheet("Print Area");
      //set print area with indexes
      workbook.setPrintArea(
      0, //sheet index
      0, //start column
      5, //end column
      0, //start row
      5 //end row
      );
      //set paper size
      spreadsheet.getPrintSetup().setPaperSize(
      XSSFPrintSetup.A4_PAPERSIZE);
      //set display grid lines or not
      spreadsheet.setDisplayGridlines(true);
      //set print grid lines or not
      spreadsheet.setPrintGridlines(true);
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("printarea.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println("printarea.xlsx written successfully"); 
   }
}

Let us save the above code as PrintArea.java. Compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac PrintArea.java
$java PrintArea

It will generate a file named printarea.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

printarea.xlsx written successfully

In the above code, we have not added any cell values. Hence printarea.xlsx is a blank file. But you can observe in the following figure that the print preview shows the print area with grid lines.

PrintArea

POI Interaction with Database

This chapter explains how the POI library interacts with a database. With the help of JDBC, you can retrieve data from a database and insert that data into a spreadsheet using the POI library. Let us consider MySQL database for SQL operations.

Write into Database

Let us assume the following employee data table called emp_tbl is to be retrieved from the MySQL database test.

EMP ID EMP NAME DEG SALARY DEPT
1201 Gopal Technical Manager 45000 IT
1202 Manisha Proof reader 45000 Testing
1203 Masthanvali Technical Writer 45000 IT
1204 Kiran Hr Admin 40000 HR
1205 Kranthi Op Admin 30000

Use the following code to retrieve data from a database and insert the same into a spreadsheet.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFCell;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFRow;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.xssf.usermodel.XSSFWorkbook;
public class ExcelDatabase 
{
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception 
   {
      Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver");
      Connection connect = DriverManager.getConnection( 
      "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test" , 
      "root" , 
      "root"
      );
      Statement statement = connect.createStatement();
      ResultSet resultSet = statement
      .executeQuery("select * from emp_tbl");
      XSSFWorkbook workbook = new XSSFWorkbook(); 
      XSSFSheet spreadsheet = workbook
      .createSheet("employe db");
      XSSFRow row=spreadsheet.createRow(1);
      XSSFCell cell;
      cell=row.createCell(1);
      cell.setCellValue("EMP ID");
      cell=row.createCell(2);
      cell.setCellValue("EMP NAME");
      cell=row.createCell(3);
      cell.setCellValue("DEG");
      cell=row.createCell(4);
      cell.setCellValue("SALARY");
      cell=row.createCell(5);
      cell.setCellValue("DEPT");
      int i=2;
      while(resultSet.next())
      {
         row=spreadsheet.createRow(i);
         cell=row.createCell(1);
         cell.setCellValue(resultSet.getInt("eid"));
         cell=row.createCell(2);
         cell.setCellValue(resultSet.getString("ename"));
         cell=row.createCell(3);
         cell.setCellValue(resultSet.getString("deg"));
         cell=row.createCell(4);
         cell.setCellValue(resultSet.getString("salary"));
         cell=row.createCell(5);
         cell.setCellValue(resultSet.getString("dept"));
         i++;
      }
      FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(
      new File("exceldatabase.xlsx"));
      workbook.write(out);
      out.close();
      System.out.println(
      "exceldatabase.xlsx written successfully");
   }
}

Let us save the above code as ExcelDatabase.java. Compile and execute it from the command prompt as follows.

$javac ExcelDatabase.java
$java ExcelDatabase

It will generate an Excel file named exceldatabase.xlsx in your current directory and display the following output on the command prompt.

exceldatabase.xlsx written successfully

The exceldatabase.xlsx file looks as follows.

Excel Database

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