What are the key features of Java?

This article will help you understand what the key features of Java Programming language are.

The Key features of Java Programming Language are −

Java is Easy to Understand

Java’s base is similar to that of C and C++ languages and it includes many important features of these languages. It removes many drawbacks and complexities of C or C++. So if one has good understanding of either C or C++, then Java language will be very familiar and easily understandable.

Java is an object oriented programming language

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to standardize the programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and function. The approach was developed to increase programmer’s productivity and also to overcome the traditional approach of programming.

Java supports several OOP features like Objects, Class, Data Abstraction, Encapsulation, Data Hiding, Inheritance and Polymorphism.

Java programs are both compiled and interpreted

It is normal for a computer language to either be compiled or interpreted during execution. But Java language is an exception as its programs are both compiled and interpreted. The Java Compiler (JAVAC) compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) then executes this bytecode and converts it into machine-dependent form.

Java programs are platform independent

This is the most significant feature of Java, as being platform independent means one program compiled on one machine can get executed on any other machines without changing anything. This is achieved because of the BYTE code concept. As mentioned before, the JAVAC compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. It doesn’t convert the source code into machine code like that of the C/C++ compiler. This bytecode is further converted into machine-dependent form by another software called JVM. This JVM can execute bytecode on any platform, regardless of the original machine bytecode.

Java is an Interactive language

Why Java is considered to be Interactive? Because Character User Interface (CUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) both are supported by Java. The interactive performance of graphical applications increases while using Java. Example of such a software where Java based designing is used is Android Studio.

Java is a multithreaded language

A thread is an independent path taken while a program is being executed. Multithreaded means handling multiple paths or tasks simultaneously of the same program. Due to multithreading, maximum resource utilization can be done. All these different threads share the same memory space. Thus performance of complicated applications is boosted.

High performance

Being a language which is both compiled and interpreted, Java is faster than many traditional interpreted programming languages. This is because the Java bytecode is very close to the native code. Although, Java is still a bit slower than other compiled languages like C++. To understand this, let’s look at what Interpreter and Compiler means.

The software, by which the conversion of the high level instructions is performed line by line to machine level language, is known as an Interpreter. If an error is found on any line, the execution stops till it is corrected. This process of correcting error is easier but the program takes longer time to execute successfully.

Whereas, if all the instructions are converted to machine level language at once and all the errors are listed together, then the software is known as Compiler. This process is much faster but sometimes it becomes difficult to correct all the errors together in a program.


Java Programming language is more secured than C or C ++ language, as one can’t explicitly create pointers in Java as compared to C or C++. Thus one can’t gain access to a particular variable if it is not initialized properly. Java also supports access modifiers, which can check memory access and also prevent viruses from entering an applet.


Java is capable of handling runtime errors, has a strong memory management system. It helps in eliminating errors in code during compilation time and runtime. Java falls under garbage collected language category, as the JVM automatically de-allocates the memory blocks unlike that of C or C++.

Java also supports exception handling which identifies runtime errors and eliminates them. The JVM terminates the program immediately as soon as it encounters any runtime error. This prevents causing any harm to the underlying system.

Dynamic and Extensible

Dynamic and extensible means one can add classes and add new methods to classes with the help of Object Oriented Programming. This is available in JAVA. It makes easier for programmers to expand their own classes and ever modify them. Java is highly dynamic in nature as it can adapt to its evolving environment.


Java is considered to be distributed as it encourages users to create distributed applications. A distributed application consists of at least one local or remote clients who communicates using at least one server on several machines linked through a network. With the help of such an application, one can conduct business operations from anywhere in the world. A programmer sitting on one machine can access a program which is running on another machine from any geographical location.