In SAP Business One, SBO-Common is only used in functionality handling or following your company database. Normal day to day business functions happens entirely in the company database.
You can create a new set of sample database SBO-COMMON by reinstalling SAP B1 server.
SBO-Common database holds this information −
For more details about SBO-COMMON database, you can refer below link −https://archive.sap.com/discussions/thread/1447063