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Networking standards define the rules for data communications that are needed for interoperability of networking technologies and processes. Standards help in creating and maintaining open markets and allow different vendors to compete on the basis of the quality of their products while being compatible with existing market products.
During data communication, a number of standards may be used simultaneously at the different layers. The commonly used standards at each layer are −
- Application layer − HTTP, HTML, POP, H.323, IMAP
- Transport layer − TCP, SPX
- Network layer −IP, IPX
- Data link layer − Ethernet IEEE 802.3, X.25, Frame Relay
- Physical layer −RS-232C (cable), V.92 (modem)
Types of Standards
Standards are of two types
- De facto − These are the standards that are followed without any formal plan or approval by any organization. They have come into existence due to traditions or facts. For example, the HTTP had started as a de facto standard.
- De jure − These standards are the ones which have been adopted through legislation by any officially recognized standards organization. Most of the communication standards that are used today are de jure standards.
Some of the noted standards organizations are
- International Standards Organization (ISO)
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
- Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers (IEEE)
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
- Internet Research Task Force (IETF)
- Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
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