In fiber optic communication, data is transmitted from the source to the destination by sending light pulses through optical fibers. It changes electrical pulses to light signals and vice versa for communication. Fiber optic communications are preferred when a huge amount of data needs to be transmitted across large distances.
The process of communication using fiber optics has the following steps −
Conversion of input electrical data to light signals : The data to be sent by the sender is in the form of electrical signals. These signals are converted to light pulses by the transmitter circuitry using a light source. A light source is of two types: LED and a laser diode.
Transmission of light signals: The light signal is transmitted over a network of optical fiber cables. During transmission, the signals should not become too weak or distorted.
Receiving of light signals: The receiver detects the light signals using a photodetector that converts light pulses to electrical pulses. Photodetectors are of two types: PN photodiode and avalanche photodiode.
A fiber optic communication system needs at least four basic equipment −