VB.Net - Functions


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A procedure is a group of statements that together perform a task when called. After the procedure is executed, the control returns to the statement calling the procedure. VB.Net has two types of procedures −

  • Functions

  • Sub procedures or Subs

Functions return a value, whereas Subs do not return a value.

Defining a Function

The Function statement is used to declare the name, parameter and the body of a function. The syntax for the Function statement is −

[Modifiers] Function FunctionName [(ParameterList)] As ReturnType
   [Statements]
End Function

Where,

  • Modifiers − specify the access level of the function; possible values are: Public, Private, Protected, Friend, Protected Friend and information regarding overloading, overriding, sharing, and shadowing.

  • FunctionName − indicates the name of the function

  • ParameterList − specifies the list of the parameters

  • ReturnType − specifies the data type of the variable the function returns

Example

Following code snippet shows a function FindMax that takes two integer values and returns the larger of the two.

Function FindMax(ByVal num1 As Integer, ByVal num2 As Integer) As Integer
   ' local variable declaration */
   Dim result As Integer
   
   If (num1 > num2) Then
      result = num1
   Else
      result = num2
   End If
   FindMax = result
End Function

Function Returning a Value

In VB.Net, a function can return a value to the calling code in two ways −

  • By using the return statement

  • By assigning the value to the function name

The following example demonstrates using the FindMax function −

Module myfunctions
   Function FindMax(ByVal num1 As Integer, ByVal num2 As Integer) As Integer
      ' local variable declaration */
      Dim result As Integer
      
      If (num1 > num2) Then
         result = num1
      Else
         result = num2
      End If
      FindMax = result
   End Function
   Sub Main()
      Dim a As Integer = 100
      Dim b As Integer = 200
      Dim res As Integer
      
      res = FindMax(a, b)
      Console.WriteLine("Max value is : {0}", res)
      Console.ReadLine()
   End Sub
End Module

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Max value is : 200

Recursive Function

A function can call itself. This is known as recursion. Following is an example that calculates factorial for a given number using a recursive function −

Module myfunctions
   Function factorial(ByVal num As Integer) As Integer
      ' local variable declaration */
      Dim result As Integer
      
      If (num = 1) Then
         Return 1
      Else
         result = factorial(num - 1) * num
         Return result
      End If
   End Function
   Sub Main()
      'calling the factorial method
      Console.WriteLine("Factorial of 6 is : {0}", factorial(6))
      Console.WriteLine("Factorial of 7 is : {0}", factorial(7))
      Console.WriteLine("Factorial of 8 is : {0}", factorial(8))
      Console.ReadLine()
   End Sub
End Module

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Factorial of 6 is: 720
Factorial of 7 is: 5040
Factorial of 8 is: 40320

Param Arrays

At times, while declaring a function or sub procedure, you are not sure of the number of arguments passed as a parameter. VB.Net param arrays (or parameter arrays) come into help at these times.

The following example demonstrates this −

Module myparamfunc
   Function AddElements(ParamArray arr As Integer()) As Integer
      Dim sum As Integer = 0
      Dim i As Integer = 0
      
      For Each i In arr
         sum += i
      Next i
      Return sum
   End Function
   Sub Main()
      Dim sum As Integer
      sum = AddElements(512, 720, 250, 567, 889)
      Console.WriteLine("The sum is: {0}", sum)
      Console.ReadLine()
   End Sub
End Module

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

The sum is: 2938

Passing Arrays as Function Arguments

You can pass an array as a function argument in VB.Net. The following example demonstrates this −

Module arrayParameter
   Function getAverage(ByVal arr As Integer(), ByVal size As Integer) As Double
      'local variables
      Dim i As Integer
      Dim avg As Double
      Dim sum As Integer = 0
      
      For i = 0 To size - 1
         sum += arr(i)
      Next i
      avg = sum / size
      Return avg
   End Function
   Sub Main()
      ' an int array with 5 elements '
      Dim balance As Integer() = {1000, 2, 3, 17, 50}
      Dim avg As Double
      'pass pointer to the array as an argument 
      avg = getAverage(balance, 5)
      ' output the returned value '
      Console.WriteLine("Average value is: {0} ", avg)
      Console.ReadLine()
   End Sub
End Module

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Average value is: 214.4

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