The following arithmetic operators are supported by Bourne Shell.
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then −
|+ (Addition)||Adds values on either side of the operator||`expr $a + $b` will give 30|
|- (Subtraction)||Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand||`expr $a - $b` will give -10|
|* (Multiplication)||Multiplies values on either side of the operator||`expr $a \* $b` will give 200|
|/ (Division)||Divides left hand operand by right hand operand||`expr $b / $a` will give 2|
|% (Modulus)||Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder||`expr $b % $a` will give 0|
|= (Assignment)||Assigns right operand in left operand||a = $b would assign value of b into a|
|== (Equality)||Compares two numbers, if both are same then returns true.||[ $a == $b ] would return false.|
|!= (Not Equality)||Compares two numbers, if both are different then returns true.||[ $a != $b ] would return true.|
It is very important to understand that all the conditional expressions should be inside square braces with spaces around them, for example [ $a == $b ] is correct whereas, [$a==$b] is incorrect.
All the arithmetical calculations are done using long integers.
Here is an example which uses all the arithmetic operators −
#!/bin/sh a=10 b=20 val=`expr $a + $b` echo "a + b : $val" val=`expr $a - $b` echo "a - b : $val" val=`expr $a \* $b` echo "a * b : $val" val=`expr $b / $a` echo "b / a : $val" val=`expr $b % $a` echo "b % a : $val" if [ $a == $b ] then echo "a is equal to b" fi if [ $a != $b ] then echo "a is not equal to b" fi
The above script will produce the following result −
a + b : 30 a - b : -10 a * b : 200 b / a : 2 b % a : 0 a is not equal to b
The following points need to be considered when using the Arithmetic Operators −
There must be spaces between the operators and the expressions. For example, 2+2 is not correct; it should be written as 2 + 2.
Complete expression should be enclosed between ‘ ‘, called the inverted commas.
You should use \ on the * symbol for multiplication.
if...then...fi statement is a decision-making statement which has been explained in the next chapter.