Modules are a way of grouping together methods, classes, and constants. Modules give you two major benefits.
Modules provide a namespace and prevent name clashes.
Modules implement the mixin facility.
Modules define a namespace, a sandbox in which your methods and constants can play without having to worry about being stepped on by other methods and constants.
module Identifier statement1 statement2 ........... end
Module constants are named just like class constants, with an initial uppercase letter. The method definitions look similar, too: Module methods are defined just like class methods.
As with class methods, you call a module method by preceding its name with the module's name and a period, and you reference a constant using the module name and two colons.
#!/usr/bin/ruby # Module defined in trig.rb file module Trig PI = 3.141592654 def Trig.sin(x) # .. end def Trig.cos(x) # .. end end
We can define one more module with the same function name but different functionality −
#!/usr/bin/ruby # Module defined in moral.rb file module Moral VERY_BAD = 0 BAD = 1 def Moral.sin(badness) # ... end end
Like class methods, whenever you define a method in a module, you specify the module name followed by a dot and then the method name.
The require statement is similar to the include statement of C and C++ and the import statement of Java. If a third program wants to use any defined module, it can simply load the module files using the Ruby require statement −
Here, it is not required to give .rb extension along with a file name.
$LOAD_PATH << '.' require 'trig.rb' require 'moral' y = Trig.sin(Trig::PI/4) wrongdoing = Moral.sin(Moral::VERY_BAD)
Here we are using $LOAD_PATH << '.' to make Ruby aware that included files must be searched in the current directory. If you do not want to use $LOAD_PATH then you can use require_relative to include files from a relative directory.
IMPORTANT − Here, both the files contain the same function name. So, this will result in code ambiguity while including in calling program but modules avoid this code ambiguity and we are able to call appropriate function using module name.
You can embed a module in a class. To embed a module in a class, you use the include statement in the class −
If a module is defined in a separate file, then it is required to include that file using require statement before embedding module in a class.
Consider the following module written in support.rb file.
module Week FIRST_DAY = "Sunday" def Week.weeks_in_month puts "You have four weeks in a month" end def Week.weeks_in_year puts "You have 52 weeks in a year" end end
Now, you can include this module in a class as follows −
#!/usr/bin/ruby $LOAD_PATH << '.' require "support" class Decade include Week no_of_yrs = 10 def no_of_months puts Week::FIRST_DAY number = 10*12 puts number end end d1 = Decade.new puts Week::FIRST_DAY Week.weeks_in_month Week.weeks_in_year d1.no_of_months
This will produce the following result −
Sunday You have four weeks in a month You have 52 weeks in a year Sunday 120
Before going through this section, we assume you have the knowledge of Object Oriented Concepts.
When a class can inherit features from more than one parent class, the class is supposed to show multiple inheritance.
Ruby does not support multiple inheritance directly but Ruby Modules have another wonderful use. At a stroke, they pretty much eliminate the need for multiple inheritance, providing a facility called a mixin.
Mixins give you a wonderfully controlled way of adding functionality to classes. However, their true power comes out when the code in the mixin starts to interact with code in the class that uses it.
Let us examine the following sample code to gain an understand of mixin −
module A def a1 end def a2 end end module B def b1 end def b2 end end class Sample include A include B def s1 end end samp = Sample.new samp.a1 samp.a2 samp.b1 samp.b2 samp.s1
Module A consists of the methods a1 and a2. Module B consists of the methods b1 and b2. The class Sample includes both modules A and B. The class Sample can access all four methods, namely, a1, a2, b1, and b2. Therefore, you can see that the class Sample inherits from both the modules. Thus, you can say the class Sample shows multiple inheritance or a mixin.