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Programmer's view of 8085 Microprocessor
Intel 8085 receives 8-bit information on AD7-0 from memory or in-port which resides inside the microprocessor via“register”. A register is a group of flip-flops, where each flip-flop can store a bit of information. To store 8 bitsof information, the size of a register in 8085 has to be 8 bits
The advantages of a register over a memory location is the contents of a register can be accessed much faster by the microprocessor, compared with the contents of a memory location.
However, the disadvantages of a register over a memory location are as follows.
If there are too many registers, they occupy a lot of space on the chip, thus reducing the space available for the control unit and ALU.
In instructions involving register operands, the number of bits that are free to specify the operation become reduced, thereby reducing the number of possible instructions.
As an example let us consider the following example with a program segment –
In the 8085 Instruction set, there are four instructions, which belong to the type LXI rp, d16. These instructions are used to load the 16-bit address into the register pair. We can use this instruction to load data from memory location using the memory address, which is stored in the register pair rp. For an example, if the instruction is LXI H, FE50. It means that the FE50 is loaded into the HL register pair.
The rp can be BC, DE, HLor SP.
The LXI instructions and their Hex-codes are as follows.
|Mnemonics, Operand||Opcode(in HEX)||Bytes|
In this example, we can see how the LXI instruction can load 16-bit data into the Register Pairs.
Load 56FE into the DEregister pair and ABCD into the HL register pair, exchange the content of DE and HL. And store the content of DE register pair into the location 8050 and 8051H.
|LXI D, 56FEH||Store 56FEH into the DE Register Pair.|
|LXI H, ABCDH||Store ABCDH into the HL Register Pair.|
|8006||EB||XCHG||Exchange the content of DE and HL|
|LXI H, 8050H||Load 8050H into the HL pair to store the result.|
|800A||72||MOVM, D||Store the content of register D into the memory location.|
|800B||23||INX H||PointHL to next source location|
|800C||73||MOV M, E||Store the content of register E into the memory location.|
Following is the timing diagram of the instruction LXI D, 56FEH
Summary − So this instruction LXI D, 56FEH requires 3-Bytes, 3-Machine Cycles (Opcode Fetch, Memory Read, MemoryRead) and 10 T-States for execution as shown in the timing diagram.
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