Pascal - Constants


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A constant is an entity that remains unchanged during program execution. Pascal allows only constants of the following types to be declared −

  • Ordinal types
  • Set types
  • Pointer types (but the only allowed value is Nil).
  • Real types
  • Char
  • String

Declaring Constants

Syntax for declaring constants is as follows −

const
identifier = constant_value;

The following table provides examples of some valid constant declarations −

Real type constant

Sr.No Constant Type & Examples
1

Ordinal(Integer)type constant

valid_age = 21;

2

Set type constant

Vowels = set of (A,E,I,O,U);

3

Pointer type constant

P = NIL;

4

e = 2.7182818;

velocity_light = 3.0E+10;

5

Character type constant

Operator = '+';

6

String type constant

president = 'Johnny Depp';

The following example illustrates the concept −

program const_circle (input,output);
const
PI = 3.141592654;

var
r, d, c : real;   {variable declaration: radius, dia, circumference}

begin
   writeln('Enter the radius of the circle');
   readln(r);
   
   d := 2 * r;
   c :=  PI * d;
   writeln('The circumference of the circle is ',c:7:2);
end.

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Enter the radius of the circle
23
The circumference of the circle is 144.51

Observe the formatting in the output statement of the program. The variable c is to be formatted with total number of digits 7 and 2 digits after the decimal sign. Pascal allows such output formatting with the numerical variables.



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