OpenShift - Getting Started


Advertisements


OpenShift consists of two types of medians to create and deploy applications, either by GUI or by CLI. In this chapter, we would be using CLI to create a new application. We would be using OC client to communicate with the OpenShift environment.

Creating a New Application

In OpenShift, there are three methods of creating a new application.

  • From a source code
  • From an image
  • From a template

From a Source Code

When we try to create an application from the source code, OpenShift looks for a Docker file that should be present inside the repo, which defines the application build flow. We will use oc new-app to create an application.

First thing to keep in mind while using a repo is that , it should point to a origin in the repo from where OpenShift will pull the code and build it.

If the repo is cloned on the Docker machine where OC client is installed and the user is inside the same directory, then it can be created using the following command.

$ oc new-app . <Hear. Denotes current working directory>

Following is an example of trying to build from remote repo for a specific branch.

$ oc new-app https://github.com/openshift/Testing-deployment.git#test1

Here, test1 is the branch from where we are trying to create a new application in OpenShift.

When specifying a Docker file in the repository, we need to define the build strategy as shown below.

$ oc new-app OpenShift/OpenShift-test~https://github.com/openshift/Testingdeployment.git

From an Image

While building an application using images, the images are present in the local Docker server, in the in-house hosted Docker repository, or on the Docker hub. The only thing that a user needs to make sure is, he has the access to pull images from the hub without any issue.

OpenShift has the capability to determine the source used, whether it is a Docker image or a source stream. However, if the user wishes he can explicitly define whether it is an image stream or a Docker image.

$ oc new-app - - docker-image tomcat

Using an image stream −

$ oc new-app tomcat:v1

From a Template

Templates can be used for the creation of a new application. It can be an already existing template or creating a new template.

Following yaml file is basically a template that can be used for deployment.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Template
metadata:
   name: <Name of template>
   annotations:
      description: <Description of Tag>
      iconClass: "icon-redis"
      tags: <Tages of image>
objects:
   - apiVersion: v1
   kind: Pod
   metadata:
      name: <Object Specification>
spec:
   containers:
      image: <Image Name>
      name: master
      ports:
      - containerPort: <Container port number>
         protocol: <Protocol>
labels:
   redis: <Communication Type>

Develop and Deploy a Web Application

Developing a New Application in OpenShift

In order to create a new application in OpenShift, we have to write a new application code and build it using OpenShift OC build commands. As discussed, we have multiple ways of creating a new image. Here, we will be using a template to build the application. This template will build a new application when run with oc new-app command.

The following template will create − Two front-end applications and one database. Along with that, it will create two new services and those applications will get deployed to OpenShift cluster. While building and deploying an application, initially we need to create a namespace in OpenShift and deploy the application under that namespace.

Create a new namespace

$ oc new-project openshift-test --display-name = "OpenShift 3 Sample" --
description = "This is an example project to demonstrate OpenShift v3"

Template

{
   "kind": "Template",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "openshift-helloworld-sample",
      "creationTimestamp": null,
         "annotations": {
         "description": "This example shows how to create a simple openshift
         application in openshift origin v3",
         "iconClass": "icon-openshift",
         "tags": "instant-app,openshift,mysql"
      }
   }
},

Object Definitions

Secret definition in a template

"objects": [
{
   "kind": "Secret",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {"name": "dbsecret"},
   "stringData" : {
      "mysql-user" : "${MYSQL_USER}",
      "mysql-password" : "${MYSQL_PASSWORD}"
   }
},

Service definition in a template

{
   "kind": "Service",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "frontend",
      "creationTimestamp": null
   },
   "spec": {
      "ports": [
         {
            "name": "web",
            "protocol": "TCP",
            "port": 5432,
            "targetPort": 8080,
            "nodePort": 0
         }
      ],
      "selector": {"name": "frontend"},
      "type": "ClusterIP",
      "sessionAffinity": "None"
   },
   "status": {
      "loadBalancer": {}
   }
},

Route definition in a template

{
   "kind": "Route",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "route-edge",
      "creationTimestamp": null,
      "annotations": {
         "template.openshift.io/expose-uri": "http://{.spec.host}{.spec.path}"
      }
   },
   "spec": {
      "host": "www.example.com",
      "to": {
         "kind": "Service",
         "name": "frontend"
      },
      "tls": {
         "termination": "edge"
      }
   },
   "status": {}
},
{ 
   "kind": "ImageStream",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "origin-openshift-sample",
      "creationTimestamp": null
   },
   "spec": {},
   "status": {
      "dockerImageRepository": ""
   }
},
{ 
   "kind": "ImageStream",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "openshift-22-ubuntu7",
      "creationTimestamp": null 
   },
   "spec": {
      "dockerImageRepository": "ubuntu/openshift-22-ubuntu7"
   },
   "status": {
      "dockerImageRepository": ""
   }
},

Build config definition in a template

{
   "kind": "BuildConfig",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "openshift-sample-build",
      "creationTimestamp": null,
      "labels": {name": "openshift-sample-build"}
   },
   "spec": {
      "triggers": [
         { "type": "GitHub",
            "github": {
            "secret": "secret101" } 
         },
         {
            "type": "Generic",
            "generic": {
               "secret": "secret101",
               "allowEnv": true } 
         },
         { 
            "type": "ImageChange",
            "imageChange": {} 
         },
         { "type": "ConfigChange”}
      ],
      "source": {
         "type": "Git",
         "git": {
            "uri": https://github.com/openshift/openshift-hello-world.git } 
      },
      "strategy": {
         "type": "Docker",
         "dockerStrategy": {
            "from": {
               "kind": "ImageStreamTag",
               "name": "openshift-22-ubuntu7:latest” 
            },
            "env": [
               {
                  "name": "EXAMPLE",
                  "value": "sample-app"
               }
            ]					
         }
      },
      "output": {
         "to": {
            "kind": "ImageStreamTag",
            "name": "origin-openshift-sample:latest"
         }
      },
      "postCommit": {
         "args": ["bundle", "exec", "rake", "test"]
      },
      "status": {
         "lastVersion": 0
      }
   }
},

Deployment config in a template

"status": {
   "lastVersion": 0
}
{
   "kind": "DeploymentConfig",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "frontend",
      "creationTimestamp": null
   }
}, 
"spec": {
   "strategy": {
      "type": "Rolling",
      "rollingParams": {
         "updatePeriodSeconds": 1,
         "intervalSeconds": 1,
         "timeoutSeconds": 120,
         "pre": {
            "failurePolicy": "Abort",
            "execNewPod": {
               "command": [
                  "/bin/true"
               ],
               "env": [
                  { 
                     "name": "CUSTOM_VAR1",
                     "value": "custom_value1"
                  }
               ]						
            }
         }
      }
   }
}
"triggers": [
   {
      "type": "ImageChange",
      "imageChangeParams": {
         "automatic": true,
         "containerNames": [
            "openshift-helloworld"
         ],
         "from": {
            "kind": "ImageStreamTag",
            "name": "origin-openshift-sample:latest"
         }
      }
   },
   {
      "type": "ConfigChange"
   }
],
"replicas": 2,
"selector": {
   "name": "frontend"
},
"template": {
   "metadata": {
      "creationTimestamp": null,
      "labels": {
         "name": "frontend"
      }
   },
   "spec": {
      "containers": [
         {
            "name": "openshift-helloworld",
            "image": "origin-openshift-sample",
            "ports": [
               { 
                  "containerPort": 8080,
                  "protocol": "TCP” 
               }
            ],
            "env": [
               {
                  "name": "MYSQL_USER",
                  "valueFrom": {
                     "secretKeyRef" : {
                        "name" : "dbsecret",
                        "key" : "mysql-user"
                     }
                  }
               },
               {
                  "name": "MYSQL_PASSWORD",
                  "valueFrom": {
                     "secretKeyRef" : {
                        "name" : "dbsecret",
                        "key" : "mysql-password"
                     }
                  }
               },
               {
                  "name": "MYSQL_DATABASE",
                  "value": "${MYSQL_DATABASE}"
               }
            ],
            "resources": {},
            "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",
            "imagePullPolicy": "IfNotPresent",
            "securityContext": {
               "capabilities": {},
               "privileged": false
            }
         }
      ],
      "restartPolicy": "Always",
      "dnsPolicy": "ClusterFirst"
   },
   "status": {}
},

Service definition in a template

{
   "kind": "Service",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "database",
      "creationTimestamp": null 
   },
   "spec": {
   "ports": [
      {
         "name": "db",
         "protocol": "TCP",
         "port": 5434,
         "targetPort": 3306,
         "nodePort": 0
      } 
   ],
   "selector": {
      "name": "database 
   },
   "type": "ClusterIP",
   "sessionAffinity": "None" },
   "status": {
      "loadBalancer": {}
   }
},

Deployment config definition in a template

{
   "kind": "DeploymentConfig",
   "apiVersion": "v1",
   "metadata": {
      "name": "database",
      "creationTimestamp": null
   },
   "spec": {
      "strategy": {
         "type": "Recreate",
         "resources": {}
      },
      "triggers": [
         {
            "type": "ConfigChange"
         }
      ],
      "replicas": 1,
      "selector": {"name": "database"},
      "template": {
         "metadata": {
            "creationTimestamp": null,
            "labels": {"name": "database"}
         },
         "template": {
            "metadata": {
               "creationTimestamp": null,
               "labels": {
                  "name": "database"
               } 
            },
            "spec": {
               "containers": [
                  {
                     "name": "openshift-helloworld-database",
                     "image": "ubuntu/mysql-57-ubuntu7:latest",
                     "ports": [
                        {
                           "containerPort": 3306,
                           "protocol": "TCP" 
                        }
                     ],
                     "env": [
                        {
                           "name": "MYSQL_USER",
                           "valueFrom": {
                              "secretKeyRef" : {
                                 "name" : "dbsecret",
                                 "key" : "mysql-user"
                              }
                           }
                        },
                        {
                           "name": "MYSQL_PASSWORD",
                           "valueFrom": {
                              "secretKeyRef" : {
                                 "name" : "dbsecret",
                                 "key" : "mysql-password"
                              }
                           }
                        },
                        {
                           "name": "MYSQL_DATABASE",
                           "value": "${MYSQL_DATABASE}" 
                        } 
                     ],
                     "resources": {},
                     "volumeMounts": [
                        {
                           "name": "openshift-helloworld-data",
                           "mountPath": "/var/lib/mysql/data"
                        }
                     ],
                     "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",
                     "imagePullPolicy": "Always",
                     "securityContext": {
                        "capabilities": {},
                        "privileged": false
                     } 
                  }
               ],
               "volumes": [
                  { 
                     "name": "openshift-helloworld-data",
                     "emptyDir": {"medium": ""} 
                  } 
               ],
               "restartPolicy": "Always",
               "dnsPolicy": "ClusterFirst” 
            } 
         }
      },
      "status": {} 
   },
   "parameters": [
      { 
         "name": "MYSQL_USER",
         "description": "database username",
         "generate": "expression",
         "from": "user[A-Z0-9]{3}",
         "required": true 
      },
      {
         "name": "MYSQL_PASSWORD",
         "description": "database password",
         "generate": "expression",
         "from": "[a-zA-Z0-9]{8}",
         "required": true
      }, 
      {
         "name": "MYSQL_DATABASE",
         "description": "database name",
         "value": "root",
         "required": true 
      } 
   ],
   "labels": {
      "template": "application-template-dockerbuild" 
   } 
}

The above template file needs to be compiled at once. We need to first copy all the content into a single file and name it as a yaml file once done.

We need to run the following command to create the application.

$ oc new-app application-template-stibuild.json
--> Deploying template openshift-helloworld-sample for "application-template-stibuild.json"

   openshift-helloworld-sample
   ---------
   This example shows how to create a simple ruby application in openshift origin v3
   * With parameters:
      * MYSQL_USER = userPJJ # generated
      * MYSQL_PASSWORD = cJHNK3se # generated
      * MYSQL_DATABASE = root

--> Creating resources with label app = ruby-helloworld-sample ...
   service "frontend" created
   route "route-edge" created
   imagestream "origin-ruby-sample" created
   imagestream "ruby-22-centos7" created
   buildconfig "ruby-sample-build" created
   deploymentconfig "frontend" created
   service "database" created
   deploymentconfig "database" created
   
--> Success
   Build scheduled, use 'oc logs -f bc/ruby-sample-build' to track its progress.
   Run 'oc status' to view your app.

If we wish to monitor the build, it can be done using −

$ oc get builds

NAME                        TYPE      FROM          STATUS     STARTED         DURATION
openshift-sample-build-1    Source   Git@bd94cbb    Running    7 seconds ago   7s

We can check the deployed applications on OpenShift using −

$ oc get pods
NAME                            READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
database-1-le4wx                1/1     Running     0          1m
frontend-1-e572n                1/1     Running     0          27s
frontend-1-votq4                1/1     Running     0          31s
opeshift-sample-build-1-build   0/1     Completed   0          1m

We can check if the application services are created as per the service definition using

$ oc get services
NAME        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP     PORT(S)      SELECTOR          AGE
database    172.30.80.39    <none>         5434/TCP     name=database      1m
frontend    172.30.17.4     <none>         5432/TCP     name=frontend      1m


Advertisements