Material Design Lite - Layouts


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In this chapter, we will discuss the different layouts in Material Design Lite. HTML5 has the following container elements −

  • <div> − Provides a generic container to HTML content.

  • <header> − Represents the header section.

  • <footer> − Represents the footer section.

  • <article> − Represents articles.

  • <section> − Provides a generic container for various types of sections.

MDL provides various CSS classes to apply various predefined visual and behavioral enhancements to the containers. The following table lists down the available classes and their effects.

Sr.No. Class Name & Description
1

mdl-layout

Identifies a container as an MDL component. Required on outer container element.

2

mdl-js-layout

Adds basic MDL behavior to layout. Required on outer container element.

3

mdl-layout__header

Identifies container as an MDL component. Required on header element.

4

mdl-layout-icon

Used to add an application icon. Gets overridden by menu icon if both are visible. Optional icon element.

5

mdl-layout__header-row

Identifies container as MDL header row. Required on header content container.

6

mdl-layout__title

Identifies layout title text. Required on layout title container.

7

mdl-layout-spacer

Used to align elements inside a header or drawer. It grows to fill remaining space. Commonly used for aligning elements to the right. Optional on div following layout title.

8

mdl-navigation

Identifies container as MDL navigation group. Required on nav element.

9

mdl-navigation__link

Identifies anchor as MDL navigation link. Required on header and/or drawer anchor elements.

10

mdl-layout__drawer

Identifies container as MDL layout drawer. Required on drawer container element.

11

mdl-layout__content

Identifies container as MDL layout content. Required on main element.

12

mdl-layout__header--scroll

Makes the header scroll with the content. Optional on header element.

13

mdl-layout--fixed-drawer

Makes the drawer always visible and open in larger screens. Optional on outer container element and not on drawer container element.

14

mdl-layout--fixed-header

Makes the header always visible, even in small screens. Optional on outer container element.

15

mdl-layout--large-screen-only

Hides an element on smaller screens. Optional on any descendant of mdl-layout.

16

mdl-layout--small-screen-only

Hides an element on larger screens. Optional on any descendant of mdl-layout.

17

mdl-layout__header--waterfall

Allows a "waterfall" effect with multiple header lines. Optional on header element.

18

mdl-layout__header--transparent

Makes header transparent and draws on top of layout background. Optional on header element.

19

mdl-layout__header--seamed

Uses a header without a shadow. Optional on header element.

20

mdl-layout__tab-bar

Identifies container as an MDL tab bar. Required on container element inside header (tabbed layout).

21

mdl-layout__tab

Identifies anchor as MDL tab link. Required on tab bar anchor elements.

22

is-active

Identifies tab as default active tab. Optional on tab bar anchor element and associated tab section element.

23

mdl-layout__tab-panel

Identifies container as tab content panel. Required on tab section elements.

24

mdl-layout--fixed-tabs

Uses fixed tabs instead of the default scrollable tabs. Optional on outer container element , not container inside header.

The following examples show the use of mdl-layout class to style various containers.

Fixed Drawer

To create a template with fixed drawer but no header, the following MDL classes are used.

  • mdl-layout − Identifies a div as an MDL component.

  • mdl-js-layout − Adds basic MDL behavior to outer div.

  • mdl-layout--fixed-drawer − Makes the drawer always visible and open in larger screens.

  • mdl-layout__drawer − Identifies div as MDL layout drawer.

  • mdl-layout-title − Identifies layout title text.

  • mdl-navigation − Identifies div as MDL navigation group.

  • mdl-navigation__link − Identifies anchor as MDL navigation link.

  • mdl-layout__content − Identifies div as MDL layout content.

mdl_fixeddrawer.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!--  No header, and the drawer stays open on larger screens (fixed drawer).-->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-drawer">
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
      
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <div class = "page-content" style = "padding-left:100px;">Hello World!</div>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Fixed Header

To create a template with fixed header following additional MDL class is used.

  • mdl-layout--fixed-header − Makes the header always visible, even in small screens.

mdl_fixedheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!-- Always shows a header, even in smaller screens. -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-header">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header">
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
               <!-- Add spacer, to align navigation to the right -->
               <div class = "mdl-layout-spacer"></div>
               <!-- Navigation -->
               <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "" 
                     style = "color:gray">Home</a>
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "" 
                     style = "color:gray">About</a>
               </nav>
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
      
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <div class = "page-content">Hello World!</div>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Fixed Header and Drawer

To create a template with fixed header and a fixed drawer, following additional MDL classes are used.

  • mdl-layout--fixed-drawer − Makes the drawer always visible and open in larger screens.

  • mdl-layout--fixed-header − Makes the header always visible, even in small screens.

mdl_fixedheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!-- The drawer is always open in large screens. The header is always 
         shown, even in small screens. -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-drawer mdl-layout--fixed-header">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header">
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
               <!-- Add spacer, to align navigation to the right -->
               <div class = "mdl-layout-spacer"></div>
               <!-- Navigation -->
               <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "" 
                     style = "color:gray">Home</a>
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "" 
                     style = "color:gray">About</a>
               </nav>
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
         
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <div class = "page-content">Hello World!</div>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Scrolling Header

To create a template with scrolling header, the following MDL classes are used.

  • mdl-layout--header--scroll − Makes the header scroll with the content.

mdl_scrollingheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!--  Uses a header that scrolls with the text, rather than 
         staying locked at the top -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout ">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header mdl-layout__header--scroll">      
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
               <!-- Add spacer, to align navigation to the right -->
               <div class = "mdl-layout-spacer"></div>
               <!-- Navigation -->
               <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>      
               </nav>
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
         
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <div class = "page-content" style = "padding-left:100px;">Hello World!
               <br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>...
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            </div>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Contracting Header

To create a template with a header that contracts as the page scrolls down, the following MDL class is used.

  • mdl-layout__header--waterfall − Allows a "waterfall" effect with multiple header lines.

mdl_waterfallheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!-- The drawer is always open in large screens. The header is always 
         shown, even in small screens. -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout ">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header mdl-layout__header--waterfall">
            <!-- Top row, always visible -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
               <!-- Add spacer, to align navigation to the right -->
               <div class = "mdl-layout-spacer"></div>
            </div>
            
            <!-- Bottom row, not visible on scroll -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <div class = "mdl-layout-spacer"></div>
               <!-- Navigation -->
               <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
                  <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>      
               </nav>
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
         
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <div class = "page-content" style = "padding-left:100px;">Hello World!
               <br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>...
               <br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>...
               <br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>...
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            </div>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Fixed Header with Scrollable Tabs

To create a template with a header having scrollable tabs, the following MDL classes are used.

  • mdl-layout__tab-bar − Identifies container as an MDL tab bar.

  • mdl-layout__tab − Identifies anchor as an MDL tab link.

  • mdl-layout__tab-panel − Identifies container as a tab content panel.

mdl_scrollabletabheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!-- The drawer is always open in large screens. The header is always 
         shown, even in small screens. -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-header">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header">
            <!-- Top row, always visible -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>          
            </div>
         
            <!-- Tabs -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__tab-bar mdl-js-ripple-effect">
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-1" class = "mdl-layout__tab is-active">Tab 1</a>
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-2" class = "mdl-layout__tab">Tab 2</a>
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-3" class = "mdl-layout__tab">Tab 3</a>     
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
         
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel is-active" id = "scroll-tab-1">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 1 Contents</div>
            </section>
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel" id = "scroll-tab-2">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 2 Contents</div>
            </section>
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel" id = "scroll-tab-3">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 3 Contents</div>
            </section>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.

Fixed Header with Fixed Tabs

To create a template with a header having fixed tabs, the following additional MDL class is used.

  • mdl-layout--fixed-tabs − Uses fixed tabs instead of the default scrollable tabs.

mdl_fixedtabheader.htm

Live Demo
<html>
   <head>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.indigo-pink.min.css">
      <script src = "https://storage.googleapis.com/code.getmdl.io/1.0.6/material.min.js">
      </script>
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <!-- The drawer is always open in large screens. The header is always 
         shown, even in small screens. -->
      <div class = "mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-header mdl-layout--fixed-tabs">
         <header class = "mdl-layout__header">
            <!-- Top row, always visible -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__header-row">
               <!-- Title -->
               <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>          
            </div>
         
            <!-- Tabs -->
            <div class = "mdl-layout__tab-bar mdl-js-ripple-effect">
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-1" class = "mdl-layout__tab is-active">Tab 1</a>
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-2" class = "mdl-layout__tab">Tab 2</a>
               <a href = "#scroll-tab-3" class = "mdl-layout__tab">Tab 3</a>     
            </div>
         </header>
         
         <div class = "mdl-layout__drawer">
            <span class = "mdl-layout-title">HTML5 Tutorial</span>
            <nav class = "mdl-navigation">
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">Home</a>
               <a class = "mdl-navigation__link" href = "">About</a>    
            </nav>
         </div>
         
         <main class = "mdl-layout__content">
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel is-active" id = "scroll-tab-1">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 1 Contents</div>
            </section>
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel" id = "scroll-tab-2">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 2 Contents</div>
            </section>
            <section class = "mdl-layout__tab-panel" id = "scroll-tab-3">
               <div class = "page-content">Tab 3 Contents</div>
            </section>
         </main>
      </div>
   
   </body>
</html>

Result

Verify the result.



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