# Haskell - Zippers

**Zippers** in Haskell are basically pointers that point to some specific location of a data structure such as a **tree**.

Let us consider a **tree** having 5 elements **[45,7,55,120,56]** which can be represented as a perfect binary tree. If I want to update the last element of this list, then I need to traverse through all the elements to reach at the last element before updating it. Right?

But, what if we could construct our tree in such a manner that a tree of having **N** elements is a collection of **[(N-1),N]**. Then, we need not traverse through all the unwanted **(N-1)** elements. We can directly update the Nth element. This is exactly the concept of Zipper. It focuses or points to a specific location of a tree where we can update that value without traversing the entire tree.

In the following example, we have implemented the concept of Zipper in a List. In the same way, one can implement Zipper in a **tree** or a **file** data structure.

data List a = Empty | Cons a (List a) deriving (Show, Read, Eq, Ord) type Zipper_List a = ([a],[a]) go_Forward :: Zipper_List a -> Zipper_List a go_Forward (x:xs, bs) = (xs, x:bs) go_Back :: Zipper_List a -> Zipper_List a go_Back (xs, b:bs) = (b:xs, bs) main = do let list_Ex = [1,2,3,4] print(go_Forward (list_Ex,[])) print(go_Back([4],[3,2,1]))

When you compile and execute the above program, it will produce the following output −

([2,3,4],[1]) ([3,4],[2,1])

Here we are focusing on an element of the entire string while going forward or while coming backward.