In the previous code example, we parse the document through beautiful constructor using a string method. Another way is to pass the document through open filehandle.
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup with open("example.html") as fp: soup = BeautifulSoup(fp) soup = BeautifulSoup("<html>data</html>")
First the document is converted to Unicode, and HTML entities are converted to Unicode characters:</p>
import bs4 html = '''<b>tutorialspoint</b>, <i>&web scraping &data science;</i>''' soup = bs4.BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml') print(soup)
<html><body><b>tutorialspoint</b>, <i>&web scraping &data science;</i></body></html>
BeautifulSoup then parses the data using HTML parser or you explicitly tell it to parse using an XML parser.
Before we look into different components of a HTML page, let us first understand the HTML tree structure.
The root element in the document tree is the html, which can have parents, children and siblings and this determines by its position in the tree structure. To move among HTML elements, attributes and text, you have to move among nodes in your tree structure.
Let us suppose the webpage is as shown below −
Which translates to an html document as follows −
<html><head><title>TutorialsPoint</title></head><h1>Tutorialspoint Online Library</h1><p<<b>It's all Free</b></p></body></html>
Which simply means, for above html document, we have a html tree structure as follows −