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Write a paragraph in your own words about each of the following.
(a) Preparation of soil
Preparation of Soil
The preparation of soil involves preparing the soil before sowing the seeds. The soil is loosened to increase the absorption of water and manures. Loosening of soil particles adds humus and nutrients in the soil that increases crop yields. Tilling or loosening the soil is done by plows that are pulled by a pair of bulls or it is done by using modern farm implements or tractor.
Sowing is the process of planting seeds into the soil. Seeds need to be sown at a proper depth with the right amount of water. It is necessary to loosen the soil before sowing. This increases the absorption of water, adds humus and nutrients in the soil which results in high crop yield.
Tilling or loosening of the soil is done by ploughs or tractor.
Farmers sow seeds at the time of suitable weather for the germination of seeds.
Weeding is the process of removal of unwanted plants or crops from the soil, which is commonly known as weeds.
Weeds grow along with the required crop and absorb nutrients and water required for their growth.
This creates competitive conditions and starvation or nutrient-deficient conditions for the cultivated crop, affecting their production efficiency.
Commonly used weeding method is hand pulling and cultivation where gardeners or farmers use a small shovel known as a trowel to dig individual weeds.
It is the process of loosening the edible part of the grain or seeds (or other crops) from the straw and chaff to which it is attached.
It is the next process after harvesting in which stems and chaffs of wheat or paddy are separated from the grains.
The process can be done manually by beating it on a solid surface or by using a threshing machine.
Stalks or stems of crop plants and the chaff are soft material whereas the grains themselves are very hard, therefore after striking it the heavy hard grains get detached from the soft stalks.
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