# Oracle DataBase – Grant Privileges to a User in SQL Command Line

## Introduction

In an Oracle Database, privileges are used to control access to the database's objects and operations. A privilege is a permission to perform a specific action on a specific object, such as SELECTing data from a table or EXECUTing a stored procedure.

When you create a user in the database, that user does not have any privileges by default. In order for the user to be able to perform any actions, you must grant them the necessary privileges. This can be done by using the GRANT command in SQL command line. When a user has been granted a privilege, they can perform the actions specified by that privilege on the object specified. For example, if a user has been granted the SELECT privilege on a table, they can SELECT data from that table.

## Definition

In an Oracle Database, the GRANT command is used to grant specific privileges to a specific user on a specific object. It allows the user to perform specific actions on the object, such as SELECTing data from a table or EXECUTing a stored procedure.

It's also worth noting that privileges can be revoked using the REVOKE command, in case a user no longer needs a privilege or if it's deemed a security risk to continue.

It's best practice to always grant minimum privileges required to the user, it is not recommended to grant all privileges.

Testing the functionality with the least privileges given and if it works then only increase the privileges if required is the best way.

## Syntax

The GRANT command is used to grant privileges to a specific user on a specific object. The basic syntax of the command is −

GRANT privilege(s) ON object TO user [WITH GRANT OPTION];

• privilege(s) −The privilege or privileges that you want to grant to the user. This can include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, EXECUTE, and others.

• object −The object on which the privileges are to be granted, such as a table or a procedure.

• user −The user to whom the privileges are to be granted.

• WITH GRANT OPTION −This option allows the user to grant the same privileges to other users.

## Factors of Oracle DataBase

There are several factors to consider when granting privileges to a user in an Oracle Database using the SQL command line −

• Object − The object on which the privileges are to be granted, such as a table, view, procedure, or package. It's important to only grant privileges on objects that the user needs to access, and to be specific about which objects the privileges apply to.

• Privileges − The privileges that are to be granted to the user. It's important to only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks. For example, if a user only needs to SELECT data from a table, they should only be granted the SELECT privilege and not additional privileges like INSERT or UPDATE.

• Users − The user or users to whom the privileges are to be granted. It's important to carefully consider which users should have access to the objects and privileges, and to keep track of which users have which privileges.

• Grant Option − The WITH GRANT OPTION allows the user to grant the same privileges to other users. This should be granted with caution, as it allows the user to propagate privileges to other users, which can increase the risk of privilege escalation.

• Audit − Keeping an Audit of the privileges granted and revoke is crucial, this helps to identify privilege misuse, privilege escalation and to ensure compliance with regulations.

• Security − This is a major factor to consider, when granting privilege to a user and revoking them when not needed. It's best practice to only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks and to monitor for any misuse of the privilege.

• Best practices − Testing the functionality with the least privileges given and if it works then only increase the privileges if required, this is a best practice to follow when granting privileges. Also keep in mind to use roles to organize and manage privileges and to simplify privilege management.

It's important to consider all these factors when granting privileges to users in an Oracle Database, to ensure that access to objects and operations is controlled in a secure and efficient manner.

## Important Points of Oracle DataBase

When granting privileges to a user in an Oracle Database using the SQL command line, there are several important points to consider

• Only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks: It's important to only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks, in order to minimize the risk of privilege misuse and escalation.

• Be specific about which objects the privileges apply to: Carefully consider which objects the user needs to access and be specific about which objects the privileges apply to.

• Keep track of which users have which privileges: Keep track of which users have been granted which privileges so that you can easily manage and revoke privileges as needed.

• Use caution when granting the WITH GRANT OPTION: The WITH GRANT OPTION allows the user to propagate privileges to other users, which can increase the risk of privilege escalation. Use caution when granting this option and only do so when necessary.

• Keep an Audit of the privileges: Keeping an Audit of the privileges granted and revoked is important, it helps to identify privilege misuse, privilege escalation and to ensure compliance with regulations.

• Security is important: It's important to consider security when granting privilege to a user and revoking them when not needed. It's best practice to only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks and to monitor for any misuse of the privilege.

• Best practices: Testing the functionality with the least privileges given and if it works then only increase the privileges if required, this is a best practice to follow when granting privileges. Also keep in mind to use roles to organize and manage privileges and to simplify privilege management.

By considering these important points, you can ensure that access to objects and operations in your Oracle Database is controlled in a secure and efficient manner.

## Example - 1

GRANT SELECT ON employees TO jsmith;

#### SQL Query

GRANT SELECT ON employees TO jsmith;


This command grants the user 'jsmith' the ability to SELECT data from the 'employees' table.

## Example - 2

Granting multiple privileges on a table −

#### SQL Query

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE ON employees TO jsmith;


This command grants the user 'jsmith' the ability to SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE data on the 'employees' table.

## Example - 3

Granting all privileges on a table −

#### SQL Query

GRANT ALL ON employees TO jsmith;


This command grants the user 'jsmith' all available privileges on the 'employees' table.

## Example - 4

Granting execute privilege on a stored procedure −

#### SQL Query

GRANT EXECUTE ON my_procedure TO jsmith;


This command grants the user 'jsmith' the ability to execute the stored procedure 'my_procedure'.

## Example - 5

Granting the WITH GRANT OPTION −

#### SQL Query

GRANT SELECT ON employees TO jsmith WITH GRANT OPTION;


This command grants the user 'jsmith' the ability to SELECT data from the 'employees' table and also allows them to grant the same SELECT privilege to other users.

### Example - 6

Granting privilege to a role −

#### SQL Query

GRANT SELECT ON employees TO my_role;


This command grants the role 'my_role' the ability to SELECT data from the 'employees' table, any user added to this role will have the SELECT privilege on employees table.

It's worth noting that you will need to have the necessary privileges yourself to execute the GRANT command. Also, it's important to keep in mind to test the functionality with the least privileges given and if it works then only increase the privileges if required and keep track of the privileges granted and revoked.

## Conclusion

• The GRANT command in Oracle Database is used to grant specific privileges to specific users on specific objects, allowing them to perform specific actions, such as SELECTing data from a table or EXECUTing a stored procedure.

• It's important to only grant the minimal privileges necessary to perform the required tasks, be specific about which objects the privileges apply to, and keep track of which users have been granted which privileges.