Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon.
OR
Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and cooking oil.

AcademicChemistryNCERTClass 10

 A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called a hydrocarbon. Saturated hydrocarbons are those in which the carbon atoms are connected by single bonds and are also called alkanes. (General formula CnH2n+2). For example, Propane, Butane, etc.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons are those in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond or a triple bond.
Example: Ethene and ethyne.
Cooking Oil is Unsaturated hydrocarbon whereas butter is saturated hydrocarbon.

We can distinguish chemically between Unsaturated hydrocarbon (cooking oil) and saturated hydrocarbon (butter) by the bromine water test. 
An alkene will turn brown bromine water colourless as the bromine reacts with the carbon-carbon double bond.

C2H4(g) + Br2 (aq) (Brown) → C2H4Br2 (aq)(Colourless)

Cooking oil decolourises bromine water showing that it is an unsaturated compound while butter does not decolourise bromine water.
raja
Updated on 10-Oct-2022 12:47:19

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