# Dynamic Testing in Software Engineering

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Dynamic Testing is performed to analyze the dynamic behavior of a code. In this Testing, testers observe the system's physical response to variables to non-constant variables. Meaning variables that change with time. The process of dynamic Testing includes compiling the software and running it by integrating input values. Then the testers execute specific test cases and see whether the output values are satisfactory to the input values. This is a process that can be done both manually or with automation.

## Example of Dynamic Testing

Let's say we are testing a login page of a website. The page consists of two fields, ' username' and 'password.' Only alphanumeric characters are allowed in the username. Now, if you enter the username as 'dynamictest01', then the system accepts it. However, if you enter the username 'dynamictest@1', the software returns an error message. This means the code is presenting dynamic results based on the user input.

Dynamic Testing refers to the process where you enter an input in the existing system and compare the system's behavior to the expected behavior. In short, it's about working with the system to find errors.

Considering the example above, we can infer that dynamic Testing is a process to validate software under different environments through an end-user's perspective.

## The Purpose of Dynamic Testing

The primary purpose of dynamic Testing is to check the application's stability by ensuring it works perfectly during and after the installation.

Let clarify it with an example −

In an online retail application, we find different sections like My orders, wallet, cart, etc. All these sections contain an amount field that accepts some numerical characters. Now let's say the amount displayed there is $1000, 1000, and$1,000. Even though the amount is the same, the way it is displayed is inconsistent.

Consistency is important in software testing besides the functional aspects. It is also crucial for performance, usability, compatibility, etc. This is why the need for dynamic testing is essential in the software development cycle.

## Types of Dynamic Testing

Dynamic Testing is classified into two categories −

### White Box Testing

In this Testing, the tester is already privy to the internal structure and design of the software application under test. The main purpose of the white box testing is to check how the system responds to the code. Developers or specialized white box testers mainly conduct this Testing.

### Black Box Testing

In this Testing, the tester is unknown of the software's internal structure, code, and design under test. This is done to analyze the system's functionality and is mainly conducted through testers by executing a complete test suite.

Black Box Testing can be subcategorized into two types – Functional and Non-Functional Testing.

### Functional Testing

Function testing is a crucial part of a testing cycle that determines the functional aspects of a software application. The QA team prepares the functional test cases and executes them in the testing phases. The testers provide input in the system, verify the output and compare the actual results with the expected results.

### Levels of Functional Testing

• Unit Testing − Unit is known as a small piece of testable code. It is performed individually in software by the developers.

• Integration Testing − It is performed after the integration testing either by testers or the development team by combining all the testable units.

• System Testing − It is performance-based Testing to determine whether the system works as per the standard requirements. It is generally conducted by testers when the system is ready, meaning the code is ready to be released by the QA team.

• Acceptance Testing − End-users execute this test to ensure the system is all set to accommodate the business's unique needs. This is a green signal stating the application is all set for the final deployment.

### Non- Functional Testing

Non-functional Testing generally focuses on the non-functional attributes of the system, such as performance, durability, security, memory leaks, etc. Generally, it ignores the functional aspects of the software application. It is conducted at all test levels.

### Some essential Non-Functional Testing Techniques

• Security Testing: It is performed to check the robustness of an application under test. It ensures that the authorized person can only use the application.

• Compatibility Testing: This test is conducted to check how the application behaves under different environments.

• Usability Testing: This test is executed to check the overall usability factor of an application when used by the end-user. Meaning how comfortable a user will feel while using the app.

• Recovery Testing: Recovery testing is conducted to check how well the system can recover from a server overload, crash, and hardware failure.

• Performance Testing: This Testing is performed to check the response time and how the system responds under the desired network load.

## Dynamic Testing Techniques

The techniques used in dynamic Testing comprises a combination of different tasks −

• Requirement analysis

• Test planning

• Test case designing and implementation

• Setting up the test environment

• Test case execution

• Bug reporting

• Test closure

Testers can move to the next task only by completing their previous task. Meaning, only by completing the requirement analysis can one move forward to test planning.

The test strategy of dynamic Testing mainly revolves around the availability of resources and the timeframe. This the deciding factor for the Testing's objectives, scope, phases or cycles, environment type, challenges, risks, etc.

After defining the strategy, the QA team forward it to the management team. Once it is approved, the QA team starts the actual dynamic Testing by designing the test case.

## Dynamic Test Design and how to implement it?

### Test Design

Test design is broken into 4 phases

• Features that required Testing

• Preparing test conditions

• Deriving coverage items

• Developing test cases

### Implementation

Setting up the Test Environment

The testing environment for dynamic Testing must be similar to the production environment. Therefore, testers need to install the build followed by managing the test machines.

Execution and Bug Reporting

Once test cases are executed, testers need to compare the test results with the expected results. If the results are not the same, they have to mark the test case as failing and reporting the bug.

## Conclusion

Verification and validation are the two main criteria to ensure that the product meets the business's specific requirements. While static tests can ensure verification, dynamic tests are executed to validate an application. Both static and dynamic Testing helps to deliver cost-effective and high-end software.

Published on 13-Jul-2021 11:15:43