Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention

The International Labour Organization (ILO) espoused the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, one of eight foundational agreements of the ILO, in 1999. Its full name is the Convention Regarding the Proscription and Imperative Accomplishment for the Elimination of the Foulest Forms of Child Labor.

A nation that approves Convention No. 182 pledges to act right away to outlaw and eliminate the worst types of child labor, such as child slavery, child prostitution, the use of children in illegal events, and dangerous labor. Since 1919, the ILO has ratified the Resolution at its rapidest rate ever.

The Convention's Goal

One of the essential purposes of the ILO was to end child labor. Over half of the 152 million youngsters concerned by the treaty work in risky conditions, deliberating to the UN agency. Due to poverty and the challenges parents confront, child labor is most predominant in the agricultural sector. The Convention backs the outlawing and abolition of the worst types of child labor, such as slavery, forced labor, and human trafficking.

It prohibits dangerous jobs, prostitution, pornography, illicit activities like drug trafficking, and the custom of children in military conflicts. The ILO reports that when nations executed guidelines and procedures, counting the minutest age of employment, and the confirmation rate rose between 2000 and 2016, the percentage of child labor decreased by about 40%.

Worst Types of Childs Labor Previously Identified

The following forms of child labor are included in Article 3 of Convention 182 of the International Labor Organization as the worst types of child labor.

The following are the worst types of child labor −

Any type of oppression or acts that are analogous to slavery, counting

  • The vending of a child;

  • Child trafficking, which is the practice of enlisting children to perform tasks outside of their homes and in situations where they are exploited;

  • Forced or obligatory labor, including the forced or bound recruitment of children for use in armed combat;

  • Debt captivity or any other kind of bonded labor or serfdom;

  • Use, obtaining, or offering of a kid for prostitution, the creation of pornography, or for pornographic performances is known as commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC).

  • Children used by adults in the directive of crime (CUBAC) is the use, procurement, or contribution of a kid by others for illegal purposes, such as drug manufacture or trading.

  • Work that is prone to jeopardizing children's health, safety, or morals.

Articles Under Convention 1999

Article 1

The worst kinds of child labor must be immediately outlawed and eradicated, and each Member who approves this Convention is required to take instant and effective action in this regard.

Article 2

All people under the age of 18 are considered "children" for the resolutions of this Agreement.

Article 3

Any kind of captivity or activities that resemble slavery, such as the procurement and retailing of children, serfdom, debt bondage, and forced or mandatory labor, including the forced or mandatory conscription of children for practice in armed conflict.

Article 4

After consultation with the organizations of employers and workers involved and consideration of pertinent international standards, particularly Paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Worst Forms of Child Labor Recommendation, 1999, national laws or regulations or the competent authority shall determine the types of work referred to in Article 3(d).

Article 5

After consulting with employers' and workers' administrations, each Member shall develop or nominate suitable mechanisms to oversee the application of the provisions giving effect to this Agreement.

Article 6

The worst types of child labor must be eliminated as a matter of priority, so each Member shall grow and carry out action plans.

Article 7

Each Member shall take all judicious steps to ensure the efficient application and execution of the necessities giving effect to this Convention, including the provision and annoyance of criminal penalties or, if appropriate, other punishments.

Article 8

By ornamental international cooperation and/or providing one another with aid, Members shall take the necessary actions to help one another carry out the provisions of this Convention. This assistance may include support for collective and monetary growth, initiatives to eradicate poverty, and initiatives to ensure that all children receive an education.

Article 9

The International Labour Office's Director-General will be informed of the official authorizations of this Agreement for registration.

Article 10

Only those International Labor Organization members whose ratifications have been lodged with the Director-General of the Global Labor Office shall be bound by this agreement.

Article 11

Once 10 years have passed since the Convention's first entry into force, a member that has ratified it may denounce it by notifying the Director-General of the Global Labor Organization for registration in an act. After the day it is registered, the denunciation will not take effect for another year.

Article 12

All members of the International Labour Organization must be notified by the Director-General of the Global Labour Office when any endorsements or acts of denunciation communicated by members of the Organization have been registered.

Article 13

The Secretary-General of the United Nations must be informed of all ratifications and acts of denunciation that the Director-General of the International Labour Office has registered in harmony with the requirements of the former Articles in order for them to be recorded in accordance with article 102 of the United Nations Charter.

Article 14

The Leading Body of the Global Labour Office shall present a report on the operation of this Convention to the General Conference at such times as it may deem necessary. It shall also consider whether it would be appropriate for the conference to include the issue of its revision, in whole or in part, on its agenda.

Article 15

For those Members who have ratified this Convention but not the revising Convention, it will nonetheless continue to be in effect in its current form and content.

Article 16

This Convention's text is equally commanding in both its English and French translations.

WFCL country programs

To reassure conformity to the agreement, a number of programs are in place (and are supervised by the ILO or other UN organizations) −

International Labor Organization initiatives aimed at averting the worst types of child labor

  • Time-bound programs to end the worst types of child labor;

  • The International Program to Eliminate Child Labor;

  • Programs available in your country on child sex exploitation for profit.


The GSP regulation covers 15 basic conventions, one of which is the Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention. The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC), recognized by the ILO in 1992, aids the state members in putting these best forms of employment out of business. The IPEC also lists instances of child labor violations where the children who were wounded can receive assistance, and each case can have a specific solution.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are different forms of child labour?

Ans. Some of the worst types of child labor embrace slavery, child trafficking, debt servitude, forced labor, children in armed conflict, and kids working in illicit jobs. The worst types of child labor are risky jobs.

Q2. Who started child labour?

Ans. When family-run companies were transformed into neighborhood labor marketplaces that mass-produced once-handmade goods, child labor first appeared in England. For many of these youths, working in a factory to produce the same things was a straightforward shift because they frequently assisted in producing goods outside of their homes.

Q3. Which state in India has the highest rate of child labor?

Ans. The top five regions for child labor are −

There is a lot of child labor in India, but the primary states where it occurs are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. More than half of all children employed in the nation do so here.

Updated on: 07-Apr-2023


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