Where are chromosomes found in a cell? State their function.

AcademicBiologyNCERTClass 8

Chromosomes are thread-like structures made up of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). These are located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. The structure of chromosomes keeps DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins called histones. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.


Function:

  • Chromosomes are composed of DNA, histones, and RNA. Under the microscope, genes are not visible, but chromosomes are visible. A single chromosome comprises many genes. It contains and preserves information in the form of a sequence of DNA for producing proteins.
  • Chromosomes help with growth, reproduction, repair, and regeneration, all of which are important for survival. The chromosome's ultrastructure keeps the coils of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, from getting broken or tangled up.
  • The main job of chromosome cells is to move genetic information from one group of cells to another. DNA winds around a protein called a histone, which helps keep the gene's effect in living things in check.
  • When a cell divides, the chromatids that are connected to the centromere help the chromosomes move. There are thousands of genes on chromosomes that directly code for proteins in all living things.
  • DNA present in living organisms assists in controlling intrinsic transfer.
  • In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are called "packaging material" because they tightly hold the deoxyribonucleic acid and send proteins to where they are needed.
  • Chromosomes are important for replication, cell division, and the creation of daughter cells. The ultrastructure of chromosomes helps separate copies by making new complete sets.
raja
Updated on 10-Oct-2022 12:46:31

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