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What is a waveguide and what are its types?
Generally, if the frequency of a signal or a particular band of signals is high, the bandwidth utilization is high as the signal provides more space for the other signals to get accumulated. But the high-frequency signals can’t travel long distances without getting attenuated. We have studied the transmission lines that help the signals to travel longer distances.
Microwaves propagate through microwave circuits, components and devices, which act as a part of Microwave transmission lines, broadly called as Waveguides.
A hollow metallic tube of the uniform cross section for transmitting electromagnetic waves by successive reflections from the inner walls of the tube is called as a Waveguide.
A waveguide is generally preferred in microwave communications. A waveguide is a special form of a transmission line, which is a hollow metal tube. Unlike the transmission line, the waveguide has no center conductor.
The Main Characteristics of A Waveguide Are
- The tube wall provides distributed inductance
- The empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance
- These are bulky, heavy, and expensive
Advantages of Waveguides
- Waveguides are easy to manufacture.
- They can handle very large power (in kilowatts)
- Power loss is very negligible in waveguides
- They offer very low loss ( low value of alpha-attenuation)
- The microwave energy when travels through the waveguide, experiences lower losses than a coaxial cable.
Types of Waveguides
There are five types of waveguides. They are:
- Rectangular waveguide
- Circular waveguide
- Elliptical waveguide
- Single ridged waveguide
- Double ridged waveguide
The above shown are the types of waveguides which are made hollow in the center and made up of copper walls. These have a thin lining of Au or Ag on the inner surface.
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