Urea is formed at the time of producing amino acid from dietary proteins. The chemical structure of the element is $\mathrm{CH_4N_2O}$ and another name of this element is Carbamide. The component is one of waste elements of living organism having no physical impact. The procedure of detecting the urea level helps to find the problems of kidneys in the body. The compound also has some commercial and agricultural values. The compound is used as fertilizer in the agricultural sector besides ammonia.

What is Urea?

Urea is a diamide state of carbonic acid and the chemical formula is $\mathrm{CH_4N_2O}$. The component is mostly used in producing plastics, drugs, fertilizer, and feeds of supplementary products. This compound is known to exist in a crystalline structure and the compound has no particular colour. The boiling point of the component is 271F or 132.7°C. The process of breaking metabolic proteins in the bodies of all mammals helps to form urea as an end product. The compound presents not only in urine but also in blood, milk, bile, perspiration, and many more.

Urea: Structure

The compound is waste material of the body excretes from the body through along with urine. The compound has two $\mathrm{-NH_2}$ groups attached with the functional group of carbonyl. The compound is not toxic and can react with water easily. The compound has no smell and no colour in normal form.

Figure 1: Structure of Urea

Jü, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The two amide groups are connected with carbonyl group that connection helps to the formation of urea. The oxygen atom makes a bond with the carbon atom and makes a group of carbonyl. The Hydrogen atoms are connected with the nitrogen atoms and make the amide group.

Urea: Synthesis

Figure 2: Production of urea

The popular chemist in France named Hilaire Marin Rouelle had separated the urine and urea. Chemists are able to create urea by heating ammonium cyanate. The inorganic elements make a mixture and get fresh organic elements using laboratory synthesis process. The compound is produced in large number and produce liquid ammonia and carbon dioxide. Under high pressure and temperature liquid ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide (dry ice) to produce ammonium carbamate. Furthermore, ammonium carbamate reacts at high temperature and results in formation of Urea and water. The compound is made up of the combination of four hydrogen, one oxygen, two nitrogen, and one carbon atoms.

Urea: Formula

The chemical formula for urea is $\mathrm{CH_4N_2O}$ and the molecular weight is 60.06g/mol. primarily, this component is a colourless and appears in solid white colour. The density of the component is 1.32g/cm3, and the melting point is 133°C. Carbon dioxide and ammonia reacts at high temperature and pressure and results in formation of urea compound. The formation process of the compound is given below −

$$\mathrm{2NH_3 + CO_2\:\rightarrow\:NH_2COONH_4\:(ammonium\: carbamate)}$$

$$\mathrm{NH_2COONH_4\:\rightarrow\:H_2O +NH_2CONH_2 (urea)}$$

The compound has a high potential of consumption of nitrogen than ammonia and for that reason, it is used as a fertilizer in agricultural industries.

Urea: Properties

The compound is easy to find in different substances related to living body like, blood, milk, and sweat of mammals. Urea is made up with a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Urine contains the concentrated form of urea and with the other chemical elements. The compound can consume dry nitrogen with a quantity of 46%. The United State is one of the major producers of urea.

The main content for making fertilizer is hydrophilic in nature and consumes nitrogen more than other elements. The components are mostly used in making explosive elements, feedstock for animals, glues, highly expensive products, and plastics. The component is used for making the process of nitrocellulose explosive elements and used as a form of stabilizer.

Quantity of Urea production

The global production rate is 220 million tons on the base of every year. The demand for the compound is very high in the sector of agriculture. The other remaining part of the compound is used to resist urea-formaldehyde, production of barbituric acid, and to manufacture skin care products. Other chemical components like, carbon dioxide and ammonia are also actively involved in the production process of urea.

Urea: Usage

The compound is used in various ways like −

  • Pretzels are formed with the help of the browning agent of the component.

  • Melamine is produced with the help of urea.

  • The compound is able to find in stomach bacteria through tests.

  • The compound is used for making dish soaps, creams, and ointments.


Urea is the main discussable chemical in the above article and the compound is produces in the liver of the human body. The compound can be prepared artificially by using other chemicals. The synthesis process is discussed in the above article. The structure of the compound and demand for the compound in the industrial sector is discussed in the above article.


Q1. On which places urea can commonly be found?

Ans. The compound is produced in the liver of the human body as a form of urine. Artificially it can be made in a lab with the help of ammonia.

Q2. Is Urea the pernicious element for humans?

Ans. The component has a very low toxic rate for all living organisms including animals and humans. The compound is pernicious in a form of ingestion for the birds and wildlife in the environment.

Q3. What is the difference between urea and Urine?

Ans. The urea exits from the body through urine and the compound is the main element between the waste elements of nitrogen. The compound is made from the liver with the help of ammonia and urine is made in the nephrons of the kidney.

Updated on: 17-Apr-2023


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