Types of Peace

Peace can also be seen as unity or harmony and calm. Especially in the East, this is perceived as peace of mind and peace. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, and a balance or balance of power. This sense of the World works on many levels. Peace can be either against hostile conflict, violence or war. It can refer to internal states (of the mind or states) or external relationships. World peace, etc.). The World can be dichotomous (existent or non-existent) or continuous, passive or active, empirical or abstract, descriptive or prescriptive, positive or negative.

Typologies of Peace

The degree of organisation that is targeted for transformation is a fundamental axis for categorising any peace strategy. In the thinking of someone suggesting something, the problem of peace can be situated at any of five levels: the solitary individual; human groups; human societies or nations; the international system of states; and the developing level of a global state. For the sake of simplicity, only the first three may be examined, leaving just three tiers of peace plans: sub-international, international, and world state.

Types of the Peace

There are two common ways of thinking about peace: negative or real peace and positive peace.

  • Negative Peace − Negative peace is defined by the absence of visible violence, such as war, which might be achieved by dialogue or mediation rather than physical force. It advocates nonviolent conflict resolution, absolute disarmament, and social and economic interdependence to minimize physical violence and discourage using force in conflict situations. Preventing conflict in a negative peace strategy necessitates many international agreements and institutions that can promote stable state relations. Many international accords and collective security measures included in the League of Nations and the United Nations have reflected the goal of promoting peace. Negative peace strategies may prioritize the now, the short term, or the near future. Negative peace is compatible with structural violence because an oppressive system may maintain stability and order. The absence of physical violence in such a setting might be attributed to deterrent methods used to punish opponents. Permanent peace is not identical to the maintenance of intervals between outbreaks of fighting. War cannot be extinguished as long as militarism is a superior value.

  • Positive Peace − Positive peace is the relationships, institutions and structures that create and sustain peaceful societies. It provides a framework for understanding and tackling the diverse and complex issues facing the World. Positive World is transformative because it is a constant cross-cutting factor that makes it easier for businesses to sell, for entrepreneurs and scientists to innovate, for individuals to produce, and for governments to produce. Easier to regulate effectively. In addition to non-violence, positive peace is associated with many other social characteristics considered worth striving for. These include better economic outcomes, well-being indicators, inclusion levels and environmental performance. Positive peace, as defined by a wide awareness of social conditions, entails eradicating structural violence and the absence of direct violence. According to Johan Galtung, positive peace would not be possible without the creation of just and equitable circumstances connected with the abolition of inegalitarian social institutions. Equality is a necessary component of peace since its absence generates all problems. All groups of individuals should have equal access to societal and economic gains as well as social, cultural, and political growth. Equality involves overcoming hurdles connected to institutional, cultural, attitudinal, and behavioural discrimination against marginalized groups of individuals.

Peace as a Social Contract

The meaning of peace is best expressed through a set of social principles. They will be documented and verified elsewhere as indicated.

  • The Conflict Principle − Conflict is the balance of power between interests, abilities and will. It about agrees on what people want, what they can get, and what they're willing to pursue. Conflict actions, be it combat, violence or war, are a means and an expression of this process.

  • Principles of Working Together − Working together depends on the expectation of strength. Power relations and corresponding agreements are achieved through conflicts in certain situations. This balance is a fine balance between the parties' interests, skills and will. The consensus lies in the simultaneous solution of different force equations and achieving a certain harmony of expectations (structure). The status quo is at the heart of this structure, a certain expectation of rights and duties. Conflicts thus bind and intertwine certain power relations and associated expectation structures.

  • Cooperation − Contractual or family relationships depend on the harmony of expectations and the mutual ability of the parties to foresee the consequences of their actions. For example, this is the core value of any written contract or agreement. And this expectation structure depends on certain power relations. Therefore, the cooperation depends on the expectations of the authorities. Expectation structures, once established, exhibit considerable social inertia, but the balance of power that underlies them can shift rapidly. Interests may change, new skills may develop, and willpower may grow stronger or weaker. When the underlying balance of power shifts, gaps in power structures and expectations can arise, and the underlying agreements lose support. The wider this gap, the greater the tension associated with the expectation of a change of power, and the more likely it is that fortuitous events will create conflicts of interest. Helps establish compliance. Conflict and cooperation are interdependent. They are alternate stages in the ongoing social processes underlying human interaction—first, conflict, then cooperation, then conflict again. Cooperation involves the balance of power achieved through conflict and the harmony of expectations consistent.

  • Spiral Principle − Conflicts become less intense, and cooperation becomes more sustainable. If the interaction occurs in a closed system or if there is no sudden and abrupt change in terms of the relationship (e.g. parties to a business contract go bankrupt or signatories to a regional military alliance with the United States stage a military coup), and then learn through conflict and cooperation, people gradually drift apart, the mutual adjustment becomes easier, and expectations become more harmonious and permanent. Conflict and cooperation thus create a spiral. Shape the learning and adaptation curve and move up. Turning points become more accessible and enduring through collaboration because conflicts are shorter and less intense.

Spheres of Peace

Besides armed conflicts, there are many different types of peace in the World.

  • Personal Sphere − Personal refers to "the awareness of one's true existence and way of life, and relationships with others based on that awareness". On a personal level, achieving peace requires an active effort to establish a proper relationship with yourself. Personal peace is achieved by learning how to manage and respond to inner conflicts, relationships, behaviours, and emotions associated with living honestly.

  • Social Sphere − Social refers to the relationship between people and other people and their collective coexistence. In the social sphere, achieving peace requires an active attempt to establish the right relationships with others. Peace in society can be achieved by examining our attitudes, intentions and actions in how we deal with human conflicts and differences and how we give and receive from others the qualities and conditions that constitute human dignity. are asked.

  • Political Sphere − Political refers to human relations in which diverse individuals and groups come together to discuss, make decisions, and collectively participate in action to create the World. In the political realm, peace is the right within and between groups of people, communities, and organizations supported by equitable and non-violent processes and institutions to meet and implement at all levels of social organization. Therefore, you should actively seek to establish a relationship. Political peace is sought through actions that examine our attitudes, intentions, and actions regarding decision-making processes and participation in public discourse.

  • Institutional Sphere − Institutional refers to how organizations and institutions are organized, the systematic structures and processes by which power is mediated, and personnel are governed. All institutions are political. In the institutional realm, peace seeks to institutionalize appropriate relationships within and among all forms of organizations, governments, businesses, organizational systems and civil society structures to support the development and maintenance of peace systems requires effort. Institutional peace seeks to examine our attitudes, intentions, and actions about how we organize, institutionalize, and systematize justice's values, principles, and norms into systematic structures that coordinate human affairs.

  • Ecosystem Sphere − Ecosystem refers to the interdependent and dynamic interrelationships between all organisms and their environments in a biological system. In the ecological realm, peace means actively seeking to establish a proper relationship with the earth and its ecosystems, of which we are a part and on which our survival and quality of life depend. Human systems are not separate from, but integral to, all biological systems, and human tissues influence and are affected by all other ecosystems. Ecosystems are resilient and vulnerable, and human life depends on our respect, stewardship and familiarity with the planet. In an ecological world, we take responsibility for transforming our relationship with the environment from one based on control to one based on interdependence and one based on inner and outer life.


Peace is the concept of social friendship and harmony without hostility or violence. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean the absence of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals and groups.

Updated on: 20-Feb-2023

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