Types of DC Motor

PhysicsElectricity

Introduction

DC motor usually refers to the particular type of motor through which the mechanical energy can be gained from the transformation of the electrical energy. A constant torque can be developed by DC motor; Rotor is a moving part of the DC motor. The mechanical movement of DC motor is generally created by it. Rotor is one of the vital parts of DC motor.

What is DC motors?

DC motor, refers to that specific type of motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It also can be said that any motor which is using the direct current or DC can be allied as a DC motor.

Categories of DC motor

  • There are mainly four types of DC motor that are frequently used.

  • Permanent Magnet DC Motor: A special kind of permanent magnet is used in this type of motor. It creates a magnetic field. These types of motors are generally used in wipers, air conditioners, and automobile starters (Badarudin et al. 2021).

  • Series Motor: A large amount of starting torque is used in this type of motor. These types of motor generally produce huge speed. If these motors are not regulated without any load, then it may cause damage to the motors.

  • Short Shunt Motor: Here, the field is connected with armature windings which is parallel to Shut field is separately excited from armature windings and due to this reason these motors are used to generate great speed and also have very simplified reverse control.

  • Long Shunt DC Motor: Here, shut field winding is generally connected partially with both both series field and armature and coil that are connected to each other in the series. This motor is used in blowers, lifts, fans, spinning machines, and lathe machines.

  • Differentially Compound: In this type of motor flux generated because of the shut field windings decreases the effect of main series windings.These motors are used for pressure blowers, circular saws, freight elevators, door lifts and driving compressors.

  • Brushless DC motor: These specific kinds of motors. It does not possess a brush. It has very high speed, high efficiency, and electric control. It is usually used in consumer electronics, transport, ventilation, and heating.

DC Motor: Components

There are several compounds of DC motors that collectively help it to move in a fast way and to the world effectively.

  • Rotor: It creates mechanical rotation in DC motor.

  • Armature winding: It has two constructions in DC motor that are Wave winding and Lap winding

  • Stator: This part of DC motor receives supply.

  • Yoke: This is the magnetic frame. It acts as the protector.

  • Poles: Poles generally possess two different parts that are Pole Shoe and Pole Core. They together generate hydraulic pressure.

  • Brushes: Brushes is roughly connected with static electrical circuit to motor.

Permanent magnet is the most popular type of DC motor. All the above-mentioned parts of DC motor are used collaboratively to run the entire machine (Mahmud et al. 2020). These different parts hold considerable importance in ruining the DC motors.

Figure 1: Different parts of DC motor

Working Principle

DC motor refers to a particular motor that covers electric energy into mechanical energy. Lorentz Law follows in the working principle of DC motors. According to this law, the conductor of the current-carrying which is placed in electric and magnetic field experience a particular force. This particular experienced force is named Lorentz Law. Flemming left-hand rule provide direction of a force. According to the rule, if thumb and middle finger and index finger of the left hand are displaced from each other at 90°, here middle finger denotes direction of magnetic field. Index finger represents direction of current, thumb shows direction of the force which acts on the conductor. The peculiar formula calculates the magnitude of force. The incarnation of filed, the resultant field improves cross conductor.

The armature coil holds brushes and commutators. Commutators generally transfer the AC that is induced in the armature into a direct current. Armature is situated between north and south pole of permanent electromagnet. Torque is another important part of DC motor. Zero torque means the motor stops rotating (Lee & Hung, 2021). For solving this problem number of the armature coil is generally implemented in rotor. Therefore, if one coil is perpendicular to field, then other coils incite the torque. It makes the rotor to move continuously.

Figure 2: Flemming left-hand rule

DC Motor: Application

DC motor is an important device in the modern era which is used for multiple purposes. Various activities are accomplished by using DC motors. DC series motors give the constant speed. It is used mainly in wipers, drills, conveyors, boring mills, blowers, and shapers. Weighing and spinning machines, fans, etc. Permanent Magnet DC motor is used as a washer, toys, wheelchairs, blowers in air conditioners and heater and windshield wiper (Mondal & Chattopadhyay, 2020).Compound DC motor is also very useful for conducting the various daily activities. It is commonly used in electric solves, stamping machines, elevators, compressors, presses, and rolling meals.

Figure 3: DC Line Voltage

Conclusion

DC motor is a special machine that is designed to convert direct current which is consists of the electrical energy to the mechanical energy. The proper understanding is needed for the good conduction of DC motor. As DC motor holds significant importance in the daily activities, thus a proper understanding of its working principle is needed. There are also many applications of DC motor which hold the considerable importance to conducting different types of machinery.

FAQs

Q1. What is the importance of Field Winding in DC motor?

Ans. This is made by field coils. These Rae generally produce electromagnet

Q2.What is the significance of Armature Winding in DC motor?

Ans. It is a very vital part of DC motor. It helps in maintaining the speed of the motors.

Q3.What is it Differentially Compoun?

Ans. It is a category of DC motor. It possesses a significant value for its diverse uses in many fields.

Q4.Which kind of DC motor is best?

Ans. Series wound DC motor is best for the application which requires high torque without any need for speed regulation.

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47

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