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Trade and Traders
Gems were mined in the northern portion of India in the Himalayan belt. The western part of the country was filled with sandalwood, including the parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Pearls were found in the coastal areas, and corals were also seen on the islands. Various kinds of crops were also seen along the river basins of Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra.
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Merchants and Traders
The merchants of that era were able to grasp the fundamental concept of understanding the movement of the wind or the directions that the wind blew in, which meant that they had an excellent sense of navigation. It was a fascinating phenomenon that whenever the sailors would come, they would move toward the southwest monsoon. This was a fascinating phenomenon. Therefore, they were aware of the precise directions to travel in and how to take full advantage of the favourable wind conditions.
The country's major river basins and significant fertile belts are located in the southern portion of the country, and they are named after the rivers Kaveri, Krishna, and the Godavari. As a direct consequence of this, most of the southern kingdoms were founded within the major river basins.
Gold, spices, pepper, and precious stones were some of the essential commodities traded in south India. During the Roman empire, pepper was referred to as the "black gold," and India was a significant pepper supplier to Rome.
Kingdoms of the Southern India
The Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandyas were the three kings who ruled their respective kingdoms during the Sangam period. Each of these three kingdoms had a capital city and at least one port city of primary significance during that period. Because of its role in the import and export trade, the port played a significant role during this period. In each of these three kingdoms, three chiefs were collectively referred to as the Muvendar. Approximately 2300 years ago, the heads of these families held political power.
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Both the Cholas' port city, Kaveripattinam, and their first capital, which was called Uraiyur, were located in what is now Tamil Nadu. Madurai served as the Pandyan dynasty's capital, while Korkai was the most important port city. The city of Vanji served as the capital of the Cheras, and the region was home to two critical ports known as Todi and Musiri. This was the general structure that was followed during the Sangam period.
Characteristics of the Sangam Period
There were no consistent taxes levied on the various trades or traders during the Sangam period. However, the king used to receive tribute, and the king was entitled to receive that tribute when he occupied a neighbour's territory.
During this period, several different poems were written. The Sangam period is famous for its abundant literary remains, and it is believed that the poems written during this period travelled with the merchants and traders. When Chief read a poem that he liked, he would sometimes reward the author.
Trading through the Silk Route
The development of the Silk Route trade network 2000 years ago had a tremendous impact on the known world and is regarded as a significant step towards a globalised world due to its spirit of exchange. It isn't easy to pinpoint the exact origin of the Silk Route as an entity. During the Han Dynasty, which ruled China from 206 BC to 220 AD, China traded with the West. The Han emperor, Wu, dispatched an imperial envoy, Zhang Qian, to contact Central Asian culture, most likely searching for allies in the face of domestic threats. Zhang's travel reports were useful information and spoke of the potential benefits of improved relations for China, both commercially and as a learning experience. This aided in the formal establishment of a trade network in 130 BC.
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In addition to travelling along the silk route in the northern part of the country, the merchants did business along other routes. In addition to this, the merchants brought a variety of religions, practices, and various rituals wherever they went. This resulted from a shift in culture from one location to another. It also aided the dissemination of numerous religions, including Buddhism. The spread of many cultural practices, such as Bhakti, was also facilitated by traders.
Q1: What goods were found in India for trade?
Ans: The Himalayan belt in northern India was used to mine gems. The western part of the country, including parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka, was densely forested with sandalwood. Pearls were discovered along the coast, and corals were also discovered on the islands. Crops of various types were also seen along the Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra river basins.
Q2: What was the importance of seas and oceans to merchants?
Ans: The merchants of the time could grasp the fundamental concept of understanding the movement of the wind or the directions that the wind blew in, implying that they had an excellent sense of navigation. It was a fantastic phenomenon that they moved toward the southwest monsoon whenever the sailors arrived. This was a fantastic occurrence. As a result, they knew exactly where to go and how to take full advantage of the favourable wind conditions.
Q3: Describe the Kingdoms of southern India.
Ans: During the Sangam period, the three kings who ruled their respective kingdoms were the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas. Each of these three kingdoms had a capital city and at least one major port city during that time. The port was necessary because of its role in import and export trade. Three chiefs were referred to as the Muvendar in these three kingdoms. These families' heads wielded political power around 2300 years ago.
Q4: Discuss the characteristics of the Sangam period.
Ans: There were no consistent taxes levied on various trades or traders during the Sangam period. However, the king used to receive tribute, and he was entitled to that tribute when occupying a neighbour's territory. Several poems were written during this period. The Sangam period is known for its abundance of literary remains, and it is believed that the poems written during this period travelled with merchants and traders. When Chief read a poem he liked, he occasionally rewarded the author.
Q5: How did traders affect the culture?
Ans: In addition to travelling along the silk rout e in the country's north, merchants conducted business along other routes. Furthermore, the merchants brought a variety of religions, practices, and rituals with them wherever they went. This was caused by a cultural shift from one location to another. It also aided in the spread of many religions, including Buddhism. Traders also aided in spreading many cultural practices, such as Bhakti.
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