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The stem of a fruit tree X fixed in soil is cut in a slanting way. The upper part of stem of another fruit tree Y of different variety of same species is also cut in a slanting way. The cut stem tree Y, without roots but having some leaves, is placed over the rooted cut stem of tree X in such a way that their cut surfaces fit together properly. While joining the two cut stems, care is taken to make sure that the layer Z of one cut stem is in contact with layer Z of the other cut stem. The joint of cut stem is bound tightly with a piece of cloth and covered properly with polythene. Soon the cut heals and the two stems grow together and become one fruit tree producing leaves, flowers and fruits.(a) What is the name of this method of producing plants or trees?
(b) What name is given to the cut stem of tree X having roots?
(c) What name is given to the cut stem of tree Y which has no roots but has some leaves?
(d) Name the layer Z.
(e) Why should the layer Z of one cut stem be in contact with the layer Z of the other cut stem?
(f) Name any four fruit trees which are usually bred by this technique.
(g) State any one advantage of producing fruit trees by this technique.
(a) The method of producing plants or trees by cutting in a slanting way is known as grafting.
(b) The cut stem of tree X having roots is known as stock. It is fixed in the soil.
(c) The cut stem of tree Y that has no roots but has some leaves is known as scion.
(d) The layer Z which remains in contact during grafting is known as cambium layer.
(e) The layer Z of one cut stem must be in contact with the layer Z of the other cut stem, that is cambium layer of both stock and scion should be in contact to allow the transport of water, minerals and nutrients required for the growth of the plant.
(f) The fruit trees that are bred by grafting technique are apple, pear, guava, peach and apricot.
(g) The advantage of producing fruit trees by grafting technique is that we can combine the most desirable characteristics of two plants to get desired quality fruits.
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