Scientific Name of Vitamins


The term "vitamin" was first used by "Dr. Casimir Funk'' in 1912. Vitamins were previously known as vitamines (brief for vital amines), but the term was simplified to vitamins after scientists learned the chemicals didn't need amines. Vitamins that dissolved in fat were designated as "fat-soluble A" vitamins and those that dissolved in water as "water-soluble B" vitamins in 1913. After that, the vitamins were called according to the order in which they were discovered, although scientists made numerous errors and recategorised the vitamins. " Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins'', an English Biochemist, received the Nobel Prize for his role in the discovery of vitamins in 1929.

What are Vitamins?

Vitamins are organic substances that support the biological processes carried out by living things. A number of organic chemicals, including vitamins, are required in trace amounts for higher animal life to function normally and thrive. Human body cannot manufacture these nutrients on its own. The only way for the human body to get vitamins is through the food we eat. Thirteen compounds are currently acknowledged as vitamins.

According to their solubilities, they can be divided into two groups:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins

  • Water-soluble vitamins.

Each vitamin plays a very specialised part in healthy physiological processes, growth, development, maintenance, and metabolic activities. A severe and protracted lack of a certain vitamin in the diet might result in a particular deficiency condition. For instance, thiamin (vitamin B1) insufficiency is the root cause of the condition beriberi. Peripheral neuropathy, muscle soreness, and weakness are beriberi symptoms. In contrast to "macronutrients" (i.e., fat, proteins, etc.), vitamins are frequently categorised as "micronutrients", since they are chemical compounds that are required in incredibly little amounts.

Vitamin Types and Their Names

Common NameScientific NameDietary sourceFunctionsDeficiency

Vitamin A


Nuts, Leafy vegetables, Milk, Carrots, etc.

  • Helps in the skin and mucous membrane stability, reproduction, embryonic development, growth, and immunological response.

Nyctalopia/ night blindness.

Vitamin B1


Fruits, Cashew nuts, Corn, Potatoes, etc.

  • Supports nerve function and metabolism of carbohydrates.


Vitamin B2


Mangoes, Bananas, Beef Liver, Mushrooms, etc.

  • Helps in generating energy.

Eyes and nerve problem.

Vitamin B3


Meat, Eggs, Peanuts, Cereals, etc.

  • Widely utilised in cellular metabolism, steroid, and fatty acid synthesis.


Vitamin B5

Pantothenic acid

Broccoli, avocado, fish, chicken, etc.

  • Act as a cofactor for fatty acid elongation.

Gastrointestinal problems, nervous problems, etc.

Vitamin B6


Pork, Whole grain cereals, Soybeans, Vegetables, etc.

  • A coenzyme component involved in the metabolism of Nitrogen and amino-containing substances, haemoglobin production, and blood glucose control.


Vitamin B7


Walnut, Cauliflower, Salmon, Cereals, etc.

  • Cofactor in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

Dermatitis, conjunctivitis, etc.

Vitamin B9

Folic Acid

Citric acid fruits, Whole grains, Legumes, etc.

  • Essential for cell division and RBC maturation; also act as a coenzyme in DNA synthesis and the metabolism of amino acids.

RBC deformities, Mouth and neural tube inflammations, defects in the fetus, etc.

Vitamin B12


Poultry, Fish, Meat, Eggs, etc.

  • Helps in Amino acid, folic acid, and fatty acid metabolism and is necessary for the synthesis of new cells, blood production, and neurological function.

Gastrointestinal problems, nerve and hematologic problems.

Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid

Goat milk, Blackcurrant, Orange, Chestnut etc.

  • Act as an antioxidant; collagen, carnitine, amino acids, and hormone synthesis; immunological activities; improve non-heme iron absorption.

Swollen and bleeding in gums, skin, joint pain and stiffness etc.

Vitamin D


Cod liver oil, Beef, Chicken breast, etc.

  • Maintaining blood phosphorus and calcium levels and ensuring that bones are properly mineralized.

Rickets and osteomalacia

Vitamin E


Potatoes, Pumpkin, Guava, Nuts etc.

  • Antioxidant; breaks up chain events involving free radicals; safeguards cell membranes and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Infertility problems.

Vitamin k


Tomatoes, Beef, Lamb, Grapes etc.

  • Blood coagulation, bone metabolism, and protein synthesis.

Blood clotting problems and Bleeding.

Classification of Vitamins

Vitamins can be divided into two groups based on biological and physical activity:

  • Vitamins that are soluble in water include Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B7, Vitamin B9, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin C. Since the body cannot store these vitamins, they must be eaten regularly through a healthy diet. Watermelon, ham, milk, whole grains, mushrooms, cheese, yoghurt, and other foods are sources of water-soluble vitamins.

  • Vitamins that can be dissolved in fat include Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K. These vitamins are dissolved in fat and taken up by globules of dietary fat. The liver and adipose tissues serve as storage sites for extra fat-soluble vitamins. Sweet potatoes, cow liver, spinach, carrots, milk, cheese, and other foods are sources of these vitamins.

Functions of Vitamins

Vitamins improve overall health and the body's effectiveness. There are numerous health advantages provided by these chemical molecules, some of which include:

  • Helps to increase immunity and metabolic activity.

  • Retaining skin in good condition.

  • Helping the nervous system and the brain function.

  • Strengthening the bones and teeth.

  • Fostering normal blood flow.


Vitamin is a crucial micronutrient that all living things require to exist. Our daily diet must have these ingredients in the right amounts. There are both common names and scientific names for various living things. Similarly, each vitamin has its corresponding scientific name. Any vitamin that is consumed insufficiently can raise the risk of health issues. Water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins are the two categories into which vitamins are separated. All vitamins cannot be measured and consumed following the prescribed dietary allowance. Instead, eat all items in the right amounts.


Q1. Which nutrients are referred to as "brain vitamins"?

Ans: The water-soluble vitamins B6, B9, and B12, which are referred to as "brain vitamins," are proven to be necessary for brain health.

Q2. Can a human body produce vitamins on its own? Then which, if any?

Ans: A few vitamins, like vitamin D, which isn't present in sufficient amounts in food, can be produced by the human body. The human body can produce vitamin K and vitamin B3 on its own, along with vitamin D.

Q3. Is taking too many vitamins harmful?

Ans: Yes. Hypervitaminosis results from taking too many vitamins. When consuming the livers of certain fish or abusing vitamin supplements, vitamin A and D poisoning can result.

Q4. Why is it important to take folic acid during pregnancy?

Ans: B vitamin folic acid is a common supplement and its synthetic form is folate. Folic acid supplementation is especially important before and throughout pregnancy as it is crucial for developing a baby's organ development. According to research, folic acid supplements taken before conception may help reduce birth defects, including significant neural tube disorders.

Q5. Which vitamins are excreted through urine?

Ans: The excess of water-soluble vitamins is excreted through the urine, so they are not stored in our bodies. As a result, these vitamins require constant replenishment. B and C vitamins are water-soluble nutrients that are excessively excreted through urine.