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Rise of global Islamic terrorism
“The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to compel or frighten governments or communities, frequently to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives” is what is meant by “terrorism.” Islamic terrorism, also known as Islamist terrorism, is the act of committing terror activity by Islamic extremists based on a religious basis. In eight nations with a Muslim majority, there have been the bulk of incidents and deaths related to Islamic terrorism (Afghanistan, Somalia, Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Libya, and Syria)
The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
Abu Musab al Zarqawi 2004 established a regional branch named al-Qaeda which gave rise to the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, ISIL, or Daesh. Although American forces in Iraq in 2007 were able to vanish, it, was in obscurity for a while.
The organization 2013 adopted the name Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Later leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi renamed it Islamic State by ISIS, he also established a caliphate spanning the areas of Aleppo, Syria, and Diyala, Iraq.
An ISIS affiliate in Egypt attacked a Russian jet in October, in which 224 people were killed. Several well-planned attacks in Paris on November 13 left more than 300 people injured and 130 dead.
Key ISIS positions were progressively taken over by the coalition of Syrian Kurds and Arabs with U.S. support, known as the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).
The defeat of ISIS was announced by President Donald Trump and his plan to remove all 2,000 U.S. forces helping the SDF in Syria on December 19, 2018. However, the SDF persisted with its offensive strategy and began the last siege on ISIS militants in Baghouz in February 2019. On October 26, 2019, a U.S. attack in northern Syria resulted in the death of ISIS's leader, marking the end of the Baghdadi period.
Terror Problem in Mali
Terrorist assaults on civilian and military targets increased in Mali in 2015. The frequency and intensity of asymmetric assaults by various Islamist organizations have grown, according to the IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Network). On August 7, 2015, during the siege of a hotel in Sevare, central Mali, roughly 17 persons were murdered, including four MINUSMA forces. According to reports, at least 342 individuals reportedly died in terrorist attacks in 2015, including UN peacekeepers, foreign workers, and contractors. The hotel was picked as a target to have the greatest worldwide impact, further highlighting the global character of this problem. Concerns were voiced about potential ISIS connections to the bombings because they followed the Paris incident, even though there was no evidence to support this.
Factors behind the Rise of Mali Terror Problem
The political crisis in Mali in 2012 and the revolt in Libya in 2011 have been the first crucial factors. These events have given Islamists and separatists with high-tech weapons the chance to carry out a bloody armed insurrection.
After French assistance in 2013, the central government was restored, although it is still not strong enough to control the northern areas. The enormous Sahel area has turned into a haven for local radical Islamic organizations, and terrorist cells.
The rivalry appears to be playing out in the area, attempting to outdo each other by engaging in violent acts of power assertion.
Some parties have fought against French interests in the area as a result of French engagement and sustained presence in Mali.
Groups like Al-Mourabitoun have made it their goal to fight France and its regional allies for their role in Mali. Large-scale poverty, inequality, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of progressive government programs create an environment that encourages radicalization.
Terror Tactics, Finance, and Recruitment
Islamist organizations like Al-Mourabitoun and AQIM employ guerilla raiding strategies as well as suicide bombings on civilian, military, and governmental targets. Aid workers, tourists, diplomats, and personnel for international businesses have all regularly been kidnapped and occasionally killed by AQIM militants. According to the U.S. State Department, they are probably supported through abduction for ransom and other illegal operations. According to analysts, the AQIM also smuggles drugs, acting as a crucial Sahel transit point for suppliers travelling between Latin American and European markets. Local tribes allow AQIM and related organizations to leverage illicit possibilities in the southern Maghreb, such as smuggling, to finance terrorism with the Belmokhtar's “family links”. The group probably also obtains financing through its ties to other terrorist groups.
Abu Musab al Zarqawi established al-Qaeda in 2004, and this gave rise to the Islamic State. Later Influx of American forces into Iraq able to made them vanish for a while. The ISIS caliphate had lost much of its territory by December 2017 to the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). On October 26, 2019, a U.S. attack in northern Syria resulted in the death of ISIS's leader. Terrorist assaults on civilian and military targets increased in Mali in 2015. Groups like Al-Mourabitoun have made it their goal to fight France and its regional allies for their role in Mali. They are probably supported through abduction for ransom and other illegal operations. Through its ties to other terrorist groups, the group probably also obtains financing.
Q1. Where does Islamic terrorism come from?
Ans. Fears of a wave of revolutionary Shia Islam spread throughout the Arab East and the West as a result of the Iranian Islamic revolution. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the ensuing conflict with the anti-Soviet mujahedeen encouraged the growth and spread of terrorist organizations.
Q2. What are the main problems Mali is now facing?
Ans. The political crisis, abuse by Islamist armed groups, abuse by state security forces, violations of children's rights, women's rights, and inter-communal violence are the main issues Mali is now dealing with.
Q3. Who was Osama bin Laden?
Ans. Osama bin Laden was the brain behind multiple terrorist operations against the United States and other Western nations. He founded the militant Islamist group al-Qaeda.
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