Research: Meaning and Types

The goal of the research is to enhance the knowledge base for the benefit of humanity. The study analyzes a topic methodically and scientifically, makes results, and justifies those results. It is both an object-oriented and systematic procedure. The research process starts with defining the research topic, is followed by data collecting and data analysis, and concludes with the representation of the conclusions. It ought to be carried out objectively, without tampering with the results. A thorough examination of the problem and finding a fresh way to assist the operations is essential to managing the final output.

What is Research?

Research is defined as a critical and exhaustive investigation to discover new facts, interpret them in light of known ideas, theories, and laws, resurrect current laws and theories in light of newly discovered facts, and apply the conclusion to practical purposes. In other words, the systematic and objective examination and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the formation of generalizations, principles, or theories that result in prediction and potentially ultimate control of occurrences is referred to as research.

According to SPR, the dominant feature of the current world is the intensive cultivation of science on a broad scale and its application to fulfill the needs of a country. It is this that, for the first time in human history, has provided the average man in scientifically advanced nations with a quality of living and social and cultural amenities formerly reserved for a very tiny and privileged fraction of the population. Only via scientific approaches and methods, as well as the application of scientific knowledge, can adequate material and cultural amenities and services be given to every member of society. The concept of the welfare state arose from understanding this potential.

Problems should be defined and redefined, hypotheses should be developed or solutions proposed, data should be collected, organized, and evaluated, and deductions should be created. Results should be drawn to establish whether the conclusions are consistent with the hypotheses. Exploration is gathering and assessing a variety of critical and permissible " on a certain subject or situation with thoughtful preparation. For a thorough knowledge of the topic, this approach includes numerous phases. These procedures are necessary for locating and evaluating crucial research data.

Characteristics of Research

For accurate data, a systematic process should be used. Establishing the target includes rules and procedures as a crucial component. Researchers should adhere to a code of ethics and behavior during the assessments or concluding the results. Inductive and deductive reasoning are used in research founded on logic. The information obtained is based on present outputs made in natural environments. All outcomes are extracted and thoroughly analyzed to ensure that there are not any irregularities.

Research paves the way for posing fresh queries. Existing data aids in expanding research prospects. The analysis is a key component of research. It utilizes all the information available to ensure the conclusion is clear. Among its most crucial features of it is accurate. The data gathered should be correct and genuine to its intended purpose.

Types of Research

Following are the major types of research −

Basic Investigation

Data gathered to advance knowledge is a definition of basic investigation. The expansion of information is the primary driver. It is a non-profit investigation that does not help with invention or creation. As in a process to ascertain a straightforward fact.

Applied Research

The applied investigation aims to find and address problems that exist in the real world. This category covers investigation that employs scientific approaches to assist solve real-world problems. Studies are crucial in resolving issues that affect people's general well-being.

Problem-Oriented Investigation 

As its name indicates, this study focuses on determining the precise nature of a problem to find possible solutions. Businesses conduct this study to comprehend and address their issues. The problem-solving approach employs applied investigation to find fixes for present problems.

Qualitative Investigation

The inquiry is at the center of the qualitative investigation process. It aids in developing a thorough awareness of the issues or problems in their natural environments. This approach is not statistical. The questions used to elicit data from the sample and the investigation's experience are crucial components of qualitative investigation. Qualitative research is an organized method of gathering and using that data to make conclusions. This approach collects and analyses data using a statistical and computational process, in contrast to qualitative techniques. In quantitative data, numbers are everything.

Purpose of Research

Exploratory research is frequently referred to as "formative investigation." The main goal of this study is to investigate phenomena or facts that are unknown and have not yet been defined. In experimental studies, researchers create and test hypotheses to understand a situation better and discover new concepts and theories. When an approach is either too wide or too particular, it becomes challenging to establish a hypothesis. The investigation that attempts to explain the distinctive characteristics of the population being studied is known as descriptive research.

This study's foundation is the idea of "reflective thinking," which discusses the goals and presumptions of an investigation project. Within that study, the characteristics are utilized to compute the percentages, mean, fundamental aspects, etc. Often surveying before conducting the descriptive investigation is preferable.

Scientific Method

Science is a corpus of facts and truths of all systematized knowledge (subjects, disciplines) that demonstrate the operations of general laws and others relevant to them. Library and information science are gradually but steadily growing as a discipline of systematic knowledge. Solutions to challenges in this subject might be achieved through a study using scientific approaches. Random House Dictionary defines the scientific method as "a procedure in which a problem is recognized, relevant evidence is obtained, and a hypothesis is produced and empirically verified." According to the definition above, the scientific method is a logical, systematic procedure. This logical method includes the following steps−

  • Identification of a good formal statement for the study subject.

  • Review of relevant literature to determine what has previously been done in the area chosen for inquiry.

  • Gathering of already known information and figures about the research topic.

  • Carefully drafted hypothesis.

  • Testing the hypothesis based on a thoughtful research design.

  • Assembling and organizing the data collected systematically for analysis.

  • Arriving at inferences and conclusions.

  • Generalization, if the results allow it.

  • Preparation and presentation of the research results.

  • Dissemination for peer review.

Ranganathan's description of the scientific process gives a complete understanding of all the principles involved. Because research is a cyclical process, the methods are repeated with each cycle.


It is impossible to overstate the importance of the study. Success in education and many industries, like legislation, literature, and banking, depend on it. The major goals of investigation are to support hypotheses, guide action, and advance the knowledge of a specific subject area. It is a source of information for advancement and learning facilitation. It helps people comprehend problems and brings awareness to them. It aids our commercial success. We may use it to defend the truth and refute falsehoods. It is a tool for locating, evaluating, and exploiting opportunities. It encourages enthusiasm for reading, publishing, analyzing, and distributing useful knowledge and comfort. The intellect is nourished and stimulated by it.

Updated on: 12-Apr-2023

1K+ Views

Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started