## What is Instruction Cycle in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:39:07
A program consisting of the memory unit of the computer includes a series of instructions. The program is implemented on the computer by going through a cycle for each instruction.In the basic computer, each instruction cycle includes the following procedures −It can fetch instruction from memory.It is used to decode the instruction.It can read the effective address from memory if the instruction has an indirect address.It can execute the instruction.After the following four procedures are done, the control switches back to the first step and repeats the similar process for the next instruction. Therefore, the cycle continues until a Halt ... Read More

## What is Design of Control Unit in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:36:52
A control unit drives the corresponding processing hardware by generating a set of signals that are in sync with the master clock. The two major operations performed by the control unit are instruction interpretation and instruction sequencing.The main function of a control unit is to fetch the data from the main memory, determine the devices and the operations involved with it, and produce control signals to execute the operations.Types of Control UnitThere are two types of control organization that are as follows −Hardwired ControlIn the hardwired organization, the control logic is executed with gates, flip-flops, decoders, and other digital circuits. ... Read More

## What are Computer Instructions?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:35:08
A computer has programs stored in its RAM in the form of 1s and 0s that are interpreted by the CPU as instructions. One word of RAM includes one instruction in the machine language.These instructions are loaded to the CPU one at a time, where it receives decoded and implemented. A basic computer has three instruction code formats such as the memory reference instruction, the register reference instruction, and the input-output instruction format.Memory Reference InstructionA memory-reference instruction uses 12 bits to specify an address and one bit to determine the addressing mode I. I is the same as 0 for ... Read More

## What is the Evolution of Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:31:40
The term ‘computer architecture’ was coined in 1964 by the ‘chief architects’ of the IBM System/360 in a paper announcing the most successful family of computers ever built. The interpretation includes the definitions of the registers, memory, the instruction set, instruction formats, addressing modes, and the actual coding of the instructions excluding implementation and realization.In 1947, with the creation of transistors, which were a fraction of the estimate of the vacuum tubes and exhausted less power, using transistors for evaluating became simpler, but still, the complex circuits were not simple to manage.The creation of Integrated Circuits in 1958, transformed the ... Read More

## What is Common Bus System in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:30:17
A pair of signal lines that facilitate the transfer of multi-bit data from one system to another is known as a bus.The diagram demonstrates three master devices as M3, M6, and M4.The master device start and controls the connection. S7, S5, and S2 are slave devices. Slave devices counter to the commands provided by master devices. If M3 needs to offer a command to S5, it should transfer its instruction by the bus.Therefore, the S5 holds the instruction and takes a response to the instruction by the bus.A basic computer includes eight registers, a memory unit, and a control unit. ... Read More

## What are Computer Registers in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:20:17
Computer registers are high-speed memory storing units. It is an element of the computer processor. It can carry any type of information including a bit sequence or single data.A register should be 32 bits in length for a 32-bit instruction computer. Registers can be numbered relies upon the processor design and language rules.The instructions in a computer are saved in memory locations and implemented one after another at a time. The function of the control unit is to fetch the instruction from the memory and implement it. The control does the similar for all the instructions in the memory in ... Read More

## What are Instruction Codes and Operands in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:17:55
A computer instruction is a binary code that determines the micro-operations in a sequence for a computer. They are saved in the memory along with the information. Each computer has its specific group of instructions.They can be categorized into two elements as Operation codes (Opcodes) and Address. Opcodes specify the operation for specific instructions. An address determines the registers or the areas that can be used for that operation. Operands are definite elements of computer instruction that show what information is to be operated on.It consists of 12 bits of memory that are required to define the address as the ... Read More

## What is Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:16:06
A computer systems create use of several storage registers that are linked to a typical operational unit is known as the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). ALU is the central and one of the most essential units internal the CPU of the computer.All the logical and numerical operations of a computer are implemented here. The contents of a particular register are arranged in the input of ALU. ALU implements the given operation and then transfers it to the target register.The one stage of an arithmetic logic shift unit is demonstrated in the figure. The subscript i nominate a frequent stage. ... Read More

## What are Shift Micro-operations in Computer Architectures?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:09:27
Shift micro-operations are used for the serial transfer of data and also support in conjunction with arithmetic, logic, and several data-processing operations. The contents of a register can be shifted to the left or the right.Simultaneously, that the bits are shifted, the first flip-flop holds its binary data from the serial input. In shift-left operation, the serial input transfers a bit into the rightmost position. In shift-right operation, the serial input transfers a bit into the leftmost position. The data transferred by the serial input decides the type of shift.Types of Shift Micro-operationsThere are three types of shift micro-operations are ... Read More

## What are Logic Micro-Operations in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 24-Jul-2021 09:06:58
Logic operations are binary micro-operations implemented on the bits saved in the registers. These operations treated each bit independently and create them as binary variables.For example, the exclusive-OR micro-operation with the contents of two registers R1 and R2 is denoted by the statementP: R1←R1$\oplus$R2It determines a logic micro-operation to be implemented on the single bits of the registers supported that the control variable P = 1. Consider that each register has four bits. Let the content of R1 be 1010 and the content of R2 be 1100.The exclusive-OR micro-operation stated above represent the following logic computation −1010   Content of ... Read More