## Independent and Dependent Voltage and Current Sources Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:25:08
In electrical and electronic circuits, some components are used to supply the required electrical energy for the operation of the circuit. These components are known as energy sources. Energy sources are the active circuit elements that can supply the necessary excitation, i.e. required electrical energy, to the circuit. In practice, we have several types of voltage and current sources such as batteries, generators, alternators, photovoltaic cells, etc. In this article, we will discuss the different types of energy sources. Types of Energy Sources The energy sources are broadly classified into the following two types − Voltage Sources Current Sources ... Read More

## How to Calculate Equivalent Resistance (Series & Parallel Circuit Examples) Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:30:01
In electrical and electronic circuits, resistance or electrical resistance is defined as the amount of friction in the flow of electric current (or electric charge) offered by the conductor material. The electric circuit element that is used to introduce the electrical resistance in the circuit is called resistor. The resistor is a passive circuit element that controls the flow of current through a circuit, and coverts the extra amount of electrical energy into heat. Sometimes, we do not have a resistor of desired resistance that is required in the circuit. For this reason, we connect two or more resistor in ... Read More

## Factors Affecting the Resistance of a Conductor Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:26:36
In this article, we will discuss the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor and the change in the resistance of a substance with the variation in temperature. Let’s begin with a basic introduction of electrical resistance. Electrical resistance is defined as the measure of opposition that a material offers in the path of electric current. The electrical resistance is denoted by the symbol R and is measured in Ohms (Ω). The electrical resistance of a conductor is given by the following empirical formula, $$\mathrm{R=\frac{\rho l}{a}\: \: \cdot \cdot \cdot \left ( 1 \right )}$$ Where, ρ (rho) is a ... Read More

## Energy Stored in a Capacitor – Formula and Examples Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:24:05
A capacitor is an electronic circuit component that stores electrical energy in the form of electrostatic charge. Thus, a capacitor stores the potential energy in it. This stored electrical energy can be obtained when required. Ideally, a capacitor does not dissipate energy, but stores it. A typical capacitor consists of two metallic plates separated by an insulating material, called dielectric. When these two metallic plates of the capacitor are connected to a source of electrical energy, the capacitor starts charging and stores electrical energy in its dielectric. Therefore, it is important to derive the expression of this stored energy in ... Read More

## Electrical Transformers – Formulas and Equations Handbook Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:23:21
Electrical transformers are one of the most widely used electrical machines in different fields of electrical engineering like power systems. So as an electrical engineer, we frequently required to calculate different parameters of a transformer to determine its operating conditions. For this, we require standard formulae, which we have listed in the following sections of this article. This page will serve as an electrical transformer formula handbook for electrical engineering students and professionals. Definition of Transformer A transformer is a static ac electrical machine used in electrical power systems for transforming (i.e. increasing or decreasing) the voltage level as ... Read More

## DC Generator – Formulas and Equations Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:17:54
In this article, we have listed all the important formulas and equations related to DC generators used in different electrical practices like design, simplify, and analysis. This page can serve as a DC generator formula handbook for electrical engineering students and professionals. DC Generator Definition An electromechanical energy conversion machine that converts rotational mechanical energy into DC electrical energy is referred to as a DC generator. A DC generator consists of two parts namely stator and rotor. The stator forms the field system of the machine, while the rotor acts as the armature. Types of DC Generator Based on armature ... Read More

## Charging of a Capacitor – Formula, Graph, and Example Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:14:18
A capacitor is a passive circuit component used in electrical and electronic circuits to introduce capacitance. The capacitance is defined as the property of a substance by which it stores electrical energy in the form of electrostatic field. A typical capacitor consists of two metal plates which are separated by a dielectric material. It is the dielectric material that has ability to store electrical energy in the form of electrostatic charge. The process of storing electrical energy in the form of electrostatic field when the capacitor is connected to a source of electrical energy is known as charging of capacitor. ... Read More

## What is the Plum Pudding Model of the Atom? Updated on 15-Nov-2022 07:42:45
There were several theories stated to explain the arrangement of subatomic particles. The Plum Pudding Model, also known as Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model, is also a scientific model for explaining the arrangement of subatomic particles. This model was first proposed by a British physicist Sir J. J. Thomson in 1904. This model was stated soon after the discovery of the electron, but prior to the discovery of the nucleus of the atom. According to the plum pudding model, "a volume of positive charge surrounds electrons in an atom, like negatively charged plums embedded in a positively charged pudding." Hence, it ... Read More

## Basic Circuit Elements – Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Updated on 15-Nov-2022 07:33:28
In electrical and electronics engineering, we frequently come across two terms "circuit" and "circuit element". Where, an electric circuit element is the most elementary building block of an electric circuit, and the electric circuit is an interconnection of different circuit elements connected in a fashion so they form a closed path for current to flow. Technically, an electric circuit element is the mathematical model of an electrical device and can be completely characterized by its voltage and current relationship. Also, a circuit element being the most basic building block cannot be subdivided into other devices. There are three most basic ... Read More

## Basic Electrical Quantities – Charge, Current, Voltage, Power and Energy Updated on 15-Nov-2022 07:16:51
In electrical and electronic circuits, there are five major electrical quantities that used to analyze circuits. These quantities are electric charge, electric current, voltage, electric power and electrical energy. In this article, we shall learn about these quantities in detail. What is Electric Charge? Electric charge or simply charge is the property of subatomic particles like protons and electrons. The electric charge is denoted by symbol Q or q and measured in Coulombs (C). Technically, electric charge is the concept which explains the electrical behavior of materials. Therefore, it is the electric charge that forms the basis of existence of ... Read More