## What is a Sinusoidal Wave Signal – Definition and Importance Updated on 19-Dec-2022 13:43:58
A sinusoidal wave signal is a type of periodic signal that oscillates (moves up and down), periodically. The geometrical waveform of a sinusoidal signal forms an S-shape wave in one complete cycle. A sinusoidal can be a sine functioned signal or cosine functioned signal. Thus, a sinusoidal signal can be defined as, $$\mathrm{y=sin\, x}$$ $$\mathrm{y=cos\, x}$$ Both sine and cosine signals are the types of sinusoidal wave signals. But, the cosine signal is advanced with respect to the sine signal by 90° in time. The sinusoidal wave signal has a smooth wave that oscillates above and below zero and used ... Read More

## What is a Bleeder Resistor? – Definition, Formula, and Applications Updated on 19-Dec-2022 13:42:18
What is a Bleeder Resistor? In electronic circuits, a resistor which is connected in parallel with the output of a high voltage power supply for discharging the filter capacitors of the power supply when the circuit is turned off is referred to as a bleeder resistor. It is also known as a leakage resistor or capacitor discharge resistor or safety discharge resistor. The bleeder resistor is primarily used for safety reasons because it eliminates the possibility of a left over charge that may cause an electric shock. Generally, a bleeder resistor is a standard resistor instead of a specialized ... Read More

## Voltage to Current Converters – Definition, Circuit, Types Updated on 19-Dec-2022 13:41:00
In electrical and electronic circuits, there are two basic electrical quantities namely current and voltage. Sometimes, we need to convert these two quantities into one another. For this, electronic circuits are designed which are known as converters. Based on conversion, there are two types of converters namely Voltage to Current Converter (V to I Converter) and Current to Voltage Converter (I to V Converter). In this article, we will discuss the definition, circuit diagram, types, and applications of voltage to current converters (or V to I Converters). So let’s begin with the basic introduction of the voltage to current converter. ... Read More

## Voltage Multipliers – Circuit, Operation, Types, and Applications Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:46:04
An electronic circuit consisting of diodes and capacitors and converts an AC electrical signal from a lower voltage value to a higher DC voltage value is referred to as a voltage multiplier. Voltage multipliers are used in several electronic appliances to generate a voltage signal of few volts to millions of volts. In this article, we will discuss the definition, circuit, types, operation, and applications of the voltage multiplier. What is a Voltage Multiplier? A voltage multiplier is an electronic circuit consisting of capacitors and diodes and is used to multiply or rise the voltage level of an AC signal. ... Read More

## Voltage in Series Circuits – Definition, Formula, Calculation, and Uses Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:41:16
In an electric circuit, when two or more electric circuit components are joined together in such a way that there is only one path for the flow of electric current, such connection of circuit components is referred to as series circuits. Therefore, in a series circuit, the current through all the circuit component remains the same, but the voltage across each element is different. In this article, we will discuss about the voltage in series circuits and how to calculate it. What is Voltage in Series Circuits? In a series circuit, the voltage across each element is different and depends ... Read More

## Voltage Follower using Operational Amplifier – Definition, Circuit Diagram, Working, and Applications Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:39:22
An electronic circuit in which the output voltage follows the input voltage is known as a voltage follower. In other words, a voltage follower is an electronic circuit whose output voltage remains the same as the input voltage. We can design a voltage follower using an operational amplifier. A voltage follower implemented using an operational amplifier is commonly known as a Unity Gain Operational Amplifier or Op-amp Buffer. In this article, we will discuss the definition, circuit, working, advantages, and applications of a voltage follower designed using an operational amplifier. So let’s begin with the basic introduction of a voltage ... Read More

## Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) – Definition, Block Diagram, Types, and Applications Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:36:59
In this article, we will discuss the uninterruptible power supply (UPS), its block diagram, types, and applications. So, lets’ begin with the basic definition of the uninterrupted power supply (UPS). What is a UPS? UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is an electrical device used to provide emergency electrical power to different electrical loads in the case of a main power supply failure. A UPS or uninterruptible power supply uses batteries and supercapacitors to store electrical energy and delivers this stored electrical energy when the main input power supply fails. However, a typical UPS battery ... Read More

## Types of Voltage Regulators – Linear, Zener Diode and Shunt Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:34:48
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit which is used to control the variations in the output voltage of a power supply so that it will remain within the suitable limits. Since, in the case of practical circuits, the voltage changes due to several reasons such as change in input voltage, change in temperature of the circuit components, etc. But, ideally, the voltage output of the power supply should be in a certain range that is acceptable for the connected circuit. This is achieved by using a circuit called voltage regulator. In this article, we will discuss the different types ... Read More

## Temperature Coefficient of Resistance – Definition, Formula and Examples Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:33:11
The electrical and electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, wires, cables, insulators, etc. are made up of different types of material. We generally refer all these materials as engineering materials. Based on electrical resistivity, the engineering materials are categorized into three categories namely – conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Since every material present in the nature possess a finite amount of electrical resistance. Also, this resistance can change with the variation in the temperature. The following points briefly explain the variation in resistance of the different types of materials with the change in temperature − The resistance of conductors ... Read More

## Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:27:55
A parameter of an oscillatory system, such as an ac circuit, which expresses the relationship between stored energy and energy dissipation is known as quality factor of the system. The quality factor is also called as Q-factor. Mathematically, the quality factor or Q-factor of an ac circuit is given by the ratio of the maximum electrical energy stored in the circuit to the energy dissipated in one time period, i.e., $$\mathrm{ Q \: Factor =\frac{2\pi \times maximum\: energy \: stored\: per\: cycle}{Energy\: dissipated\: per\: cycle} }$$ The quality factor (Q-factor) can ... Read More