## Why do we use Group, Ring and Fields in Information Security?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 11:15:55
Groups, rings, and fields are the important elements of a branch of mathematics called as abstract algebra, or modern algebra. In abstract algebra, it is concerned with sets on whose elements and it can operate algebraically; that is, it can combine two elements of the set, perhaps in multiple ways, and it can obtain a third element of the set.GroupA group (G) is indicated by {G, ∙}. It is a group of elements with a binary operation ′ ∙ ′ that satisfies four properties. The properties of Group are as follows −Closure − If a and b are elements of ... Read More

## What is the most security-critical component of DES round function?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 11:13:12
There are various component of DES which are as follows −Key Transformation − An initial 64-bit key is changed into a 56-bit key by discarding each 8th bit of the initial key. Therefore for each round, a 56 bit key is applicable. From this 56-bit key, there are several 48-bit subkey is produced during every round utilizing a procedure is known as key transformation. The 56-bit key is breaked into two halves, each 28 bits.Round12345678910111213141516Number of key bits shifted1122222212222221No of key bits shifted per roundIn key transformation procedure, it includes permutation and selection of a 48-bit key from original 56-bit ... Read More

## What is the difference between Encryption and Steganography in Information Security?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 11:08:39
EncryptionData encryption is a method of translating information from plaintext (unencrypted) to ciphertext (encrypted). Users can access encrypted information with an encryption key and decrypted information with a decryption key.There are large amounts of sensitive information handled and stored online in the cloud or on combined servers. Encryption needs cybersecurity to protect against brute-force and cyber-attacks, such as malware and ransomware.Data encryption operates by protecting transmitted digital information on the cloud and computer systems. There are two types of digital information, transmitted information or in-flight information and stored digital information or data at rest.The main objective of data encryption is ... Read More

## What are the techniques of Monoalphabetic Cipher?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 11:04:18
There are various techniques of Monoalphabetic cipher which are as follows −Additive Cipher − Additive cipher is one method of changing a permutation of the letters of the alphabet. Each letter in the alphabet is cyclically changed by the equivalent amount and the relative order of the letters is kept the similar.The number of position the letter has been transformed is known as key. For example if it can use a key value of 5, ‘a’ is changed 5 positions right in the alphabet to ‘F’, ‘b’, to ‘G’ and so on.The letter ‘u’ is changed to ‘Z’ and thus ... Read More

## What is Monoalphabetic Cipher in Information Security?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 11:00:48
The substitution cipher is the oldest forms of encryption algorithms according to creates each character of a plaintext message and require a substitution process to restore it with a new character in the ciphertext.This substitution method is deterministic and reversible, enabling the intended message recipients to reverse-substitute ciphertext characters to retrieve the plaintext.The specific form of substitution cipher is the Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher, is known as “Simple Substitution Cipher”. Monoalphabetic Substitution Ciphers based on an individual key mapping function K, which consistently replaces a specific character α with a character from the mapping K (α).A mono-alphabetic substitution cipher is a ... Read More

## What is Polyalphabetic Substitution Cipher in Information Security?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 10:58:53
A poly-alphabetic cipher is any cipher based on substitution, using several substitution alphabets. In polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, the plaintext letters are enciphered differently based upon their installation in the text. Rather than being a one-to-one correspondence, there is a one-to-many relationship between each letter and its substitutes.For example, ‘a’ can be enciphered as ‘d’ in the starting of the text, but as ‘n’ at the middle. The polyalphabetic ciphers have the benefit of hiding the letter frequency of the basic language. Therefore attacker cannot use individual letter frequency static to divide the ciphertext.The first Polyalphabetic cipher was the Alberti Cipher ... Read More

## How many Encryption Rounds are there in IDEA?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 10:56:16
IDEA stands for the International Data Encryption Algorithm. IDEA is a symmetric-key block cipher. It is denoted the same key can be used to encrypt the plaintext and decrypt the ciphertext.IDEA needed both the encrypting and decrypting parties to have a secret key that is different from a public-key and other asymmetric encryption schemes. The secret key popular to the encrypting party.IDEA is a patented and universally accessible block encryption algorithm, which allows the effective protection of transmitted and stored information against unauthorized access by third parties.The fundamental element for the development of IDEA were military durability for all security ... Read More

## How does IDEA Encryption work?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 10:51:46
IDEA is a block cipher and it operates on 64bit plaintext and 128 bit key. IDEA is reversible like DES that is, the equivalent algorithm can be used for encryption and decryption. IDEA needs both diffusion and confusion for encryption.The 64-bit plaintext is divided into four portions of 16bit plaintext (P1 to P4). These are input to the first round. There are eight such rounds. The key includes 128 bits. In each round, six sub-keys are produced from the original key, each of these sub-key includes 16 bits.For the first round it can have key K1 to K6, for second ... Read More

## What is IDEA in Information Security?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 10:49:56
IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm. IDEA is a block cipher invented by James Massey and Xuejia Lai and was first defined in 1991. It uses 128 bit key length which works on 64 bit blocks.It includes a series of eight identical transformations depend upon bitwise exclusiveor, addition and multiplication modules. It is based upon symmetric cipher and has very weak key design approach therefore security level of the algorithm is very underprivileged as compared to the DES. IDEA not becomes so much famous because of its complex structure.It is an IDEA, unlike the other block cipher algorithms is ... Read More

## What is Data Encryption and Decryption in Blowfish Algorithm?

Updated on 15-Mar-2022 10:39:13
Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher algorithm invented by Brute Schneier in December 1993. The Blowfish algorithm has several advantages. It is applicable and efficient for hardware implementation and no license is needed. The elementary operators of Blowfish algorithm contains table lookup, addition and XOR. The table contains four S-boxes and a P-array.Blowfish is a cipher depends on Feistel rounds, and the design of the F-function used amounts to a simplification of the principles used in DES to support the same security with higher speed and effectiveness in software.Blowfish is a 64-bit symmetric block cipher that need a variable-length key ... Read More