Found 1175 Questions for Computer Network

Passive Optical Network

Arjun Thakur
Updated on 03-Aug-2019 19:59:37
DefinitionPassive Optical Network (PON) is a FTTH (Fiber to the Home) technology deployed in both domestic and commercial consumers. It is called a passive network since it does not require a power equipment to amplify or process signals. A PON implements point – to – multipoint architecture, where a single optical line is divided into many optical splitters to serve multiple customers. It is used in the last mile of the network connection between an ISP and a user.ArchitectureThe passive optical network has three parts −Optical Line Terminator (OLT) − This is the end office of the service provider.Optical Distribution ... Read More

Fiber To The Home

Ankith Reddy
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:23
Definition Fiber to the home (FTTH) is a technology to deploy optical fibers in the local loop of the telephone networks to the users’ home for providing high-speed data connectivity. It replaces the existing copper wires as telephone lines to the customer premises by optical fibers that allow much greater bandwidth and less noisy connectivity. FTTH Council The FTTH Council is a non-profit organization to provide advanced FTTH solutions. Its members comprise of manufacturers, organizations and municipalities who build and install equipments for FTTH systems. The purpose of the Council is to share knowledge and build industry consensus on FTTH. ... Read More

Digital Subscriber Lines

George John
Updated on 03-Aug-2019 19:56:03
DefinitionDigital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a communication technology that offers high – bandwidth digital communication over standard telephone lines formed of copper wires.FeaturesDSL is a family of technologies under the general name of xDSL, for various x, like ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. Originally, it was a part of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and was called IDSL.DSL technology is used in the local loop of the telephone network, i.e. the part of the telephone network that connects the customer premises with the end office of the telephone company.Some DSL services provide more than the standard bandwidth of the telephone lines. ... Read More

Telephone Modems

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:23
Modem is an abbreviation of “modulator demodulator”. It is a network device that modulates digital information or bits into analog signals for transmission at the sending end, and demodulates the analog signals to bits at the receiving end. Telephone modems enables data communication between two computers over voice – grade telephone lines. Purpose and Usage The computers are digital devices that are connected via analog local loops of the telephone networks. So, there is a need to convert the bits to analog signals so that they can be transmitted via the physical channels; and conversely convert analog signals in the ... Read More

The Local Loop

karthikeya Boyini
Updated on 03-Aug-2019 20:03:38
In a telephone system, the local loop is a two-wire connection between the subscriber’s house and the end office of the telephone company. It is commonly referred to as the “last mile” of the telephone network. The loop may run from 1km to as far as 10 km.CompositionTraditionally, local loops are composed of twisted pair copper cables. The old local loops have several limitations − narrow bandwidth, high attenuation, distortion of symbols, crosstalk's etc.In recent times, copper wires are being replaced by fiber optic cables for faster and more accurate performance. Installation of fiber cables is popularly known as FttH ... Read More

Structure of the Telephone System

Samual Sam
Updated on 03-Aug-2019 19:51:13
The telephone system model is organized as a highly redundant, multilevel hierarchy. It comprises of the following components −Telephone of the subscriber or end userEnd office − Local central office directly connected to end user at a distance of 1 – 10km.Local loop − A two-way connection between the telephone and the end office.Toll office − switching centres which are called tandem offices when located within the same local area.Toll connecting trunk − Lines that connect end offices with toll offices.Intermediate switching offices − Interconnected non-hierarchical switching offices for connecting toll offices.Inter toll trunk − Very high bandwidth channels that ... Read More

Public Switched Telephone Network

karthikeya Boyini
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:23
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is an agglomeration of an interconnected network of telephone lines owned by both governments as well as commercial organizations. Properties of PSTN It is also known as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) It has evolved from the invention of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. The individual networks can be owned by national government, regional government or private telephone operators. Its main objective is to transmit human voice in a recognizable form. It is an aggregation of circuit-switched networks of the world. Originally, it was an entirely analog network laid with copper cables ... Read More

Code Division Multiplexing

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:23
Code division multiplexing (CDM) is a multiplexing technique that uses spread spectrum communication. In spread spectrum communications, a narrowband signal is spread over a larger band of frequency or across multiple channels via division. It does not constrict bandwidth’s digital signals or frequencies. It is less susceptible to interference, thus providing better data communication capability and a more secure private line. Code Division Multiple Access When CDM is used to allow multiple signals from multiple users to share a common communication channel, the technology is called Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Each group of users is given a shared code ... Read More

Time Division Multiplexing

karthikeya Boyini
Updated on 20-Jan-2021 11:31:49
Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique of multiplexing, where the users are allowed the total available bandwidth on time sharing basis. Here the time domain is divided into several recurrent slots of fixed length, and each signal is allotted a time slot on a round-robin basis.Concept and ProcessIn TDM, the data flow of each input stream is divided into units. One unit may be 1 bit, 1 byte, or a block of few bytes. Each input unit is allotted an input time slot. One input unit corresponds to one output unit and is allotted an output time slot. During ... Read More

Frequency Division Multiplexing

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:23
Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique of multiplexing which means combining more than one signal over a shared medium. In FDM, signals of different frequencies are combined for concurrent transmission. Concept and Process In FDM, the total bandwidth is divided to a set of frequency bands that do not overlap. Each of these bands is a carrier of a different signal that is generated and modulated by one of the sending devices. The frequency bands are separated from one another by strips of unused frequencies called the guard bands, to prevent overlapping of signals. The modulated ... Read More