Found 1248 Articles for Computer Network

What is pipelining?

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
In computer networking, pipelining is the method of sending multiple data units without waiting for an acknowledgment for the first frame sent. Pipelining ensures better utilization of network resources and also increases the speed of delivery, particularly in situations where a large number of data units make up a message to be sent.Flow Diagram of Pipelined Data TransmissionThe following flow diagram depicts data transmission in a pipelined system versus that in a non-pipelined system. Here, pipelining is incorporated in the data link layer, and four data link layer frames are sequentially transmitted.Data Link Protocols that uses PipeliningTwo data link layer ... Read More

Bandwidth Delay Product

karthikeya Boyini
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Bandwidth delay product is a measurement of how many bits can fill up a network link. It gives the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted by the sender at a given time before waiting for acknowledgment. Thus it is the maximum amount of unacknowledged data.MeasurementBandwidth delay product is calculated as the product of the link capacity of the channel and the round – trip delay time of transmission.The link capacity of a channel is the number of bits transmitted per second. Hence, its unit is bps, i.e. bits per second.The round – trip delay time is the sum ... Read More

A Protocol Using Go-Back-N

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Go-Back-N protocol, also called Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest, is a data link layer protocol that uses a sliding window method for reliable and sequential delivery of data frames. It is a case of sliding window protocol having to send window size of N and receiving window size of 1.Working PrincipleGo – Back – N ARQ provides for sending multiple frames before receiving the acknowledgment for the first frame. The frames are sequentially numbered and a finite number of frames. The maximum number of frames that can be sent depends upon the size of the sending window. If the acknowledgment of ... Read More

A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Sliding window protocols are data link layer protocols for reliable and sequential delivery of data frames. The sliding window is also used in Transmission Control Protocol. In these protocols, the sender has a buffer called the sending window and the receiver has buffer called the receiving window.In one – bit sliding window protocol, the size of the window is 1. So the sender transmits a frame, waits for its acknowledgment, then transmits the next frame. Thus it uses the concept of stop and waits for the protocol. This protocol provides for full – duplex communications. Hence, the acknowledgment is attached ... Read More

What is Piggybacking in Networking?

karthikeya Boyini
Updated on 30-Jun-2020 10:59:35
In reliable full - duplex data transmission, the technique of hooking up acknowledgments onto outgoing data frames is called piggybacking.Why Piggybacking?Communications are mostly full – duplex in nature, i.e. data transmission occurs in both directions. A method to achieve full – duplex communication is to consider both the communication as a pair of simplex communication. Each link comprises a forward channel for sending data and a reverse channel for sending acknowledgments.However, in the above arrangement, traffic load doubles for each data unit that is transmitted. Half of all data transmission comprise of transmission of acknowledgments.So, a solution that provides better ... Read More

Sliding Window Protocol

Samual Sam
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Sliding window protocols are data link layer protocols for reliable and sequential delivery of data frames. The sliding window is also used in Transmission Control Protocol.In this protocol, multiple frames can be sent by a sender at a time before receiving an acknowledgment from the receiver. The term sliding window refers to the imaginary boxes to hold frames. Sliding window method is also known as windowing.Working PrincipleIn these protocols, the sender has a buffer called the sending window and the receiver has buffer called the receiving window.The size of the sending window determines the sequence number of the outbound frames. ... Read More

Who is known as the Father of Internet?

Tejas Charukula
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Vinton G. Cerf is known as the “Father of the Internet". He is the co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. The US President, Bill Clinton presented the U.S. National Medal of Technology to Cerf and his colleague, Robert E. Kahn, for founding and developing the wonderful creation of the Internet in December 1997.The contribution of Cerf and his colleagues have been acknowledged and applauded all over the world. Today, we cannot imagine our lives without the Internet.Vint Cerf has been awarded many honorary degrees and prizes that include the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of ... Read More

Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission (PAR)

Arjun Thakur
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission (PAR) is a group of error – control protocols for transmission of data over noisy or unreliable communication network. These protocols reside in the Data Link Layer and in the Transport Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model. They provide for automatic retransmission of frames that are corrupted or lost during transit. PAR is also called Automatic Repeat ReQuest (ARQ).PARs are used to provide reliable transmissions over unreliable upper layer services. They are often used in Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication.Working PrincipleIn these protocols, the receiver sends an acknowledgement message back to the ... Read More

Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)

Ankith Reddy
Updated on 30-Jul-2019 22:30:24
Automatic Repeat ReQuest (ARQ) is a group of error – control protocols for transmission of data over noisy or unreliable communication network. These protocols reside in the Data Link Layer and in the Transport Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model. They are named so because they provide for automatic retransmission of frames that are corrupted or lost during transmission. ARQ is also called Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission (PAR).ARQs are used to provide reliable transmissions over unreliable upper layer services. They are often used in Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication.Working PrincipleIn these protocols, the receiver sends an ... Read More

A Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol for a Noisy Channel

George John
Updated on 30-Jun-2020 08:12:32
Simplex Stop – and – Wait protocol for noisy channel is data link layer protocol for data communications with error control and flow control mechanisms. It is popularly known as Stop – and –Wait Automatic Repeat Request (Stop – and –Wait ARQ) protocol. It adds error control facilities to Stop – and – Wait protocol.This protocol takes into account the facts that the receiver has a finite processing speed and that frames may get corrupted while transmission. If data frames arrive at the receiver’s end at a rate which is greater than its rate of processing, frames can be dropped ... Read More
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