Found 123 Articles for Biology Articles

Animal Husbandry: Types and Advantages

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 04-Jan-2023 18:03:35
Introduction Agriculture is often misinterpreted to involve only the growth of crops for food and fibre purposes. However, agriculture is not just limited to plants. The rearing of livestock for their useful products comes under the field of agriculture as well. Humans have been rearing animals for their personal needs since time immemorial. Domestication of animals took place some 13, 000 years ago and since then, humans have devised new ways to improve the quality and quantity of products obtained from animals. The specialised rearing of certain livestock, to exploit their products, is known as animal husbandry. What ... Read More


Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 04-Jan-2023 17:27:03
Introduction Life forms of the planet have a variety of relationships. Some of them could be positive where both or either of the participants benefits or they could be negative whether at least one of the participants is harmed. These can be mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, ammensalism, etc. These relationships have a significant effect on the ecosystem. In this tutorial, we would be discussing more on ammensalism in which one of the participants is harmed while the other remains unaffected. What is Ammensalism? We can define ammensalism as a two-species interaction in which one species has a detrimental impact on the ... Read More

Allee Effect

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 04-Jan-2023 17:22:20
Introduction Allee effect is the per capita population growth rate, which helps to detect and eliminate the extinction of a population. The Allee effect was explained by Warder Clyde Allee (1885-1955) to determine a positive per capita growth rate. In simple words, we can say that the Allee effect helps us to know at what speed the number of individuals will increase in a population (growth rate) concerning each individual (per capita). It determines whether a population is going to increase its growth rate or is on the verge of extinction. Following this, any population, like plants and animals (especially ... Read More

Adaptive Radiation Evolution

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 04-Jan-2023 17:17:59
Introduction Evolution is a complex process. Studying different organisms (both living and extinct) with respect to their physical, and functional characters for a long duration makes an understanding of how present-day species have evolved. Sometimes the environment and living conditions force organisms to acquire new features essential for them. Without which, the particular organism can find it difficult to survive in that environment. Suppose some organisms are introduced into a new environment and their body makeup does not fit them into the niche. They adapt to the environment by undergoing small changes so that they can succeed in their niche. ... Read More

Chemiosmotic Hypothesis

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 15:11:29
Introduction In 1961, British Biochemist Peter Dennis Mitchell coined the term chemiosmotic hypothesis. This is a biological process that explains the ATP synthesis by photosynthesis in the chloroplast. In this process, ATP and NADP both are generated by light reactions and used as a key component of dark reactions to produce the final product i.e., glucose by photosynthesis. According to the hypothesis, ATP develops as a result of the proton gradient created in the thylakoid membrane. Proton pumps and ATP synthase are also important. The enzyme ATP synthase has two subunits- F0 and F1. When F1 activates the enzyme, it ... Read More


Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 15:05:05
Introduction In essence, a centromere is a constrained area of the chromosome that plays a key role in the process of cell division in eukaryotic cells. There are various sorts of DNA structures and various jobs or roles that they can play. For the purpose of separating sister chromatids during cell division, centromeres are mainly heterochromatic regions of chromosomes. Until relatively recently, centromeres were generally contained behind multimegabase gaps, which were likened to black holes from which no information can escape because present technology cannot detect contiguous sequence for extremely repeated regions. The genetic location known as the centromere determines ... Read More

Central Dogma Inheritance Mechanism

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 17:34:27
Introduction DNA is the carrier of genetic information which transmits traits from one generation to the next generation. Genes are the units of heredity that are formed by DNA. These genes transfer the information to proteins which express in the cells to perform specific functions or maintain specific structures. The whole process can be termed central dogma inheritance. DNA transfers the information to RNA by transcription and RNA undergoes translation to produce polypeptides. The process in which DNA is converted to functional protein can be called gene expression. Definition The theory of central dogma indicates that DNA that carries the ... Read More

Life Cycle of Chicken

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 14:36:15
Introduction Hens may survive for 8 to 10 years, and the majority of flocks will lay eggs for three years. Each year, there is a decline in egg production, egg shape, and shell condition. Most advertising layers are managed to keep for approximately two to three years because, after that, their egg production starts to decline. Owners should plan to retire elderly hens and introduce young hens every three to four years to maintain a small flock production. Important Features A domesticated subspecies of the untamed red junglefowl, the chicken is a bird that belongs to the Phasianidae family and ... Read More


Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 14:33:03
Introduction The chemotrophs gain their energy from the oxidation of the molecules they have in their environments. Among them, the chemoorganotrophs oxidize the organic and the chemolithotrophs oxidize the inorganic compounds. The chemotrophs indirectly use light energy i.e., they use the stored energy of the ATPs. They are also divided into chemoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic. The chemoautotrophs gains energy by the chemical reactions to synthesize all the organic compound commencing carbon dioxide. They can use inorganic sources of energy such as essential sulfur, molecular hydrogen, ferrous iron, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. Most of them live in deep-sea vents and ... Read More

Chemical Nursery - A Brief on Life's Beginnings

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 02-Jan-2023 14:27:39
Introduction: Chemical Nursery The speculation around the origin of life on earth is one of the most sought-after mysteries. The theory of special creation according to which a higher being has created life in the form that we know today, has been around since time immemorial. However, this theory has not found acceptance in the scientific world. Ancient Greek thinkers like Aristotle, Plato, Thales, etc., advocated the theory of spontaneous generation from non-living matter. This is known as abiogenesis. However, this theory was discarded after individual experiments conducted by Spallanzani, Redi, and Pasteur. The theory of biogenesis attracted much attention. ... Read More
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