Found 638 Articles for Computer Science

What is Page Replacement in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:31:04
A virtual memory organization is a consolidation of hardware and software systems. It can make efficient utilization of memory space all the software operations are handled by the memory management software.The hardware mapping system and the memory management software together form the structure of virtual memory.When the program implementation starts, one or more pages are transferred into the main memory and the page table is set to denote their location. The program is implemented from the main memory just before a reference is created for a page that is not in memory. This event is defined as a page fault.When ... Read More

How to Address Mapping using Pages in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:30:09
The table execution of the address mapping is interpreted if the data in the address space and the memory space are each split into a collection of fixed sizes. The physical memory is broken down into sets of similar size known as blocks, which can range from 64 to 4096 words each. The term page defines a set of address spaces of a similar size.Example − Suppose a page or block consists of 1K words, then address space can be divided into 1024 pages and main memory can be divided into 32 blocks.Even though both a page and a block ... Read More

What is the relationship between Address and Memory Space in a Virtual Memory System?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:27:53
Addresses that are used by programmers are known as virtual addresses, and the set of such addresses is known as the address space. Space or spot where the address is saved in the main memory is referred to as location or physical address and the set of such locations is known as the memory space.Therefore, the address space is the set of addresses generated by programs as they reference instructions and data. The memory space holds the actual main memory locations that are directly addressable for processing.Example − Consider, main-memory having a capacity of 32K words (K = 1024). 15 ... Read More

Discuss the Set Associative Mapping in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:26:21
Set associative mapping combines direct mapping with fully associative mapping by arrangement lines of a cache into sets. The sets are persistent using a direct mapping scheme. However, the lines within each set are treated as a small fully associative cache where any block that can save in the set can be stored to any line inside the set.The diagram represents this arrangement using a sample cache that uses four lines to a set.A set-associative cache that includes k lines per set is known as a k way set-associative cache. Because the mapping approach uses the memory address only like ... Read More

What is Direct Mapping Process in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:24:56
Direct mapping is a procedure used to assign each memory block in the main memory to a particular line in the cache. If a line is already filled with a memory block and a new block needs to be loaded, then the old block is discarded from the cache.The figure shows how multiple blocks from the example are mapped to each line in the cache.Just like locating a word within a block, bits are taken from the main memory address to uniquely describe the line in the cache where a block can be stored.Example − Consider a cache with = ... Read More

Discuss the Associative Mapping in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:23:36
In the associative mapping function, any block of main memory can probably consist of any cache block position. It breaks the main memory address into two parts - the word ID and a tag as shown in the figure. To check for a block stored in the memory, the tag is pulled from the memory address and a search is performed through all of the lines of the cache to see if the block is present.This method of searching for a block within a cache appears like it might be a slow process, but it is not. Each line of ... Read More

What is Associative Memory?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:22:25
An associative memory can be treated as a memory unit whose saved information can be recognized for approach by the content of the information itself instead of by an address or memory location. Associative memory is also known as Content Addressable Memory (CAM).The block diagram of associative memory is shown in the figure. It includes a memory array and logic for m words with n bits per word. The argument register A and key register K each have n bits, one for each bit of a word.The match register M has m bits, one for each memory word. Each word ... Read More

What is Auxiliary Memory?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:19:38
An Auxiliary memory is referred to as the lowest-cost, highest-space, and slowest-approach storage in a computer system. It is where programs and information are preserved for long-term storage or when not in direct use. The most typical auxiliary memory devices used in computer systems are magnetic disks and tapes.Magnetic DisksA magnetic disk is a round plate generated of metal or plastic coated with magnetized material. There are both sides of the disk are used and multiple disks can be stacked on one spindle with read/write heads accessible on each surface.All disks revolve together at high speed and are not stopped ... Read More

What is Cache Memory in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:18:06
The data or contents of the main memory that are used generally by the CPU are saved in the cache memory so that the processor can simply create that information in a shorter time. Whenever the CPU requires to create memory, it first tests the cache memory. If the data is not established in cache memory, so the CPU transfers into the main memory.Cache memory is located between the CPU and the main memory. The block diagram for a cache memory can be represented as −The concept of reducing the size of memory can be optimized by placing an even ... Read More

What is the Main Memory?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:14:24
The main memory is the fundamental storage unit in a computer system. It is associatively large and quick memory and saves programs and information during computer operations. The technology that makes the main memory work is based on semiconductor integrated circuits.RAM is the main memory. Integrated circuit Random Access Memory (RAM) chips are applicable in two possible operating modes are as follows −Static − It consists of internal flip-flops, which store the binary information. The stored data remains solid considering power is provided to the unit. The static RAM is simple to use and has smaller read and write cycles.Dynamic ... Read More
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