Found 638 Articles for Computer Science

What is BCD Subtraction in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:20:42
A subtractor circuit is required to perform a subtraction operation on two decimal numbers. BCD subtraction is slightly different from BCD addition. Performing subtraction operation by taking the 9’s or 10’s complement of the subtrahend and adding it to the minuend is economical.It is not possible to obtain the 9’s complement by complementing every bit in the code because the BCD is not a self- complementing code. The 9’s complement has to be formed by a circuit that subtracts Notes every BCD number from 9.The 9’s complement of a decimal digit that is represented in BCD can be obtained by ... Read More

What is BCD Adder in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:19:35
BCD adder refers to a 4-bit binary adder that can add two 4-bit words of BCD format. The output of the addition is a BCD-format 4-bit output word, which defines the decimal sum of the addend and augend and a carry that is created in case this sum exceeds a decimal value of 9. Therefore, BCD adders can implement decimal addition.Construction of BCD AdderSum of Binary DigitsSum of BCD DigitsKZ8Z4Z2Z1CS8S4S2S1Decimal00000000000000010000110001000010200011000113001000010040010100101500110001106001110011170100001000801001010019010101001010010111001111011001000012011011000113011101011014011111011115100001010016100011010117100101101018100111101119In this table, K is the carry. The subscripts below the letter Z define the weights. The weights, according to the table, are 8, 4, 2, and 1. These weights can ... Read More

What is the division of binary numbers in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 29-Jul-2021 09:10:07
The binary division is similar to division in decimals. The process involves successive comparison, shifting, and subtraction. The division of binary numbers is easy compared to the division of decimal numbers because the quotient is either 0 or 1. It is also not necessary to check the number of times the dividend (partial remainder) fits into the divisor.Divide OverflowIn a computer system, the division operation can lead to a quotient with an overflow because the registers cannot hold a number that exceeds the standard length. To understand this better, consider a system with a standard 5-bit register.One register is used ... Read More

What is Vector Processing in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 29-Jul-2021 08:35:11
Vector processing is a central processing unit that can perform the complete vector input in individual instruction. It is a complete unit of hardware resources that implements a sequential set of similar data elements in the memory using individual instruction.The scientific and research computations involve many computations which require extensive and high-power computers. These computations when run in a conventional computer may take days or weeks to complete. The science and engineering problems can be specified in methods of vectors and matrices using vector processing.Features of Vector ProcessingThere are various features of Vector Processing which are as follows −A vector ... Read More

What is RISC Pipeline in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 29-Jul-2021 08:33:44
RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computers. It was introduced to execute as fast as one instruction per clock cycle. This RISC pipeline helps to simplify the computer architecture’s design.It relates to what is known as the Semantic Gap, that is, the difference between the operations provided in the high-level languages (HLLs) and those provided in computer architectures.To avoid these consequences, the conventional response of the computer architects is to add layers of complexity to newer architectures. This also increases the number and complexity of instructions together with an increase in the number of addressing modes. The architecture which resulted ... Read More

What is Instruction Pipeline in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 29-Jul-2021 09:31:47
An instruction pipeline reads consecutive instructions from memory while in the other segments the previous instructions are being implemented. Pipeline processing appears both in the data flow and in the instruction stream. This leads to the overlapping of the fetch and executes the instruction and hence simultaneous operations are performed.There is one possible more event associated with such a design is that instruction can generate a branch out of a sequence. In this method, the pipeline is clear and all the instructions that have previously been read from memory after the branch instruction should be rejected.A computer can be constructed ... Read More

What is Arithmetic Pipeline in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 29-Jul-2021 09:36:54
Pipeline arithmetic units are generally discovered in very large-speed computers. It can execute floating-point operations, multiplication of fixed-point numbers, and the same computations encountered in mathematical problems.The inputs to the floating-point adder pipeline are two normalized floating-point binary numbers represented as −X = A x 2aY = B x 2bWhere A and B are two fractions that define the mantissa and a and b are the exponents. The floating-point addition and subtraction can be implemented in four segments, as a displayed figure. The registers labeled R is located between the segments to save intermediate outcomes. The suboperations that are implemented ... Read More

What are the types of Pipelining Conflicts?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:55:54
Pipelining is a technique of breaking a sequential process into small fragments or sub-operations. The execution of each of these sub-procedure takes place in a certain dedicated segment that functions together with all other segments. There are three types of Pipelining conflicts that are as follows −Resource ConflictsThese conflicts arise due to insufficient resources wherein it is not possible to overlap the operations. The performance of pipelined processor depends on either of the two conditions are as follows −Whether or not the functional units are pipelined?Do the multiple execution units allow all available mixture of instructions in the pipeline?If for ... Read More

What are the techniques to avoid Pipelining Conflicts?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:54:40
Pipelining defines a technique of decomposing a sequential process into sub-operations, with each sub-operation being implemented in an enthusiastic segment that works together with all other segments. There are the following techniques that can be followed to avoid pipelining conflicts −Hardware Interlocks − Hardware interlocks are electronic circuits that detect instructions whose source operands are destinations of instructions further up in the pipeline. After detecting this situation, the instruction whose source is not available is delayed by a suitable number of clock periods. In this way, the conflict is resolved.Operand Forwarding − This procedure need special hardware to identify a ... Read More

What is the process of pipelining?

Updated on 27-Jul-2021 14:49:50
Pipelining is a technique of breaking a sequential process into small fragments or sub-operations. The execution of each of these sub-procedure takes place in a certain dedicated segment that functions together with all other segments. The pipeline has a collection of processing segments which helps the flow of binary information.The internal working in a pipeline is such that the outcome of one segment is conveyed to the next segment in the pipeline until the desired result is obtained. The outcome is acquired after the information is developed through all segments.The term “pipeline” indicates that the flow of information takes place ... Read More