Found 638 Articles for Computer Science

What are the different shared-memory multiprocessor models?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:46:02
The most popular parallel computers are those that implement programs in MIMD mode. There are two major types of parallel computers such as shared memory multiprocessor & message-passing multi computers. The main difference between multiprocessors & multicomputer lies in memory sharing and the structure used for interprocessor communication.The processor in the multiprocessor system communicates with each other through a shared variable in common memory. Each computer node in a multicomputer system has local memory, unshared with different nodes. Inter-process communication is done through message passing among nodes.Three shared memory multiprocessor models are as follows −UMA ModelUMA stands for Uniform memory ... Read More

What are the different levels of Parallelism?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:44:06
There are different level of parallelism which are as follows −Instruction Level − At instruction level, a grain is consist of less than 20 instruction called fine grain. Fine-grain parallelism at this level may range from two thousand depending on an individual program single instruction stream parallelism is greater than two but the average parallelism at instruction level is around fine rarely exceeding seven in an ordinary program.For scientific applications, the average parallel is in the range of 500 to 300 Fortran statements executing concurrently in an idealized environment.Loop Level − It embraces iterative loop operations. A loop may contain ... Read More

What are the conditions of Parallelism in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:42:52
There are various conditions of Parallelism which are as follows −Data and resource dependencies − A program is made up of several parts, so the ability to implement various program segments in parallel is needed that each segment should be autonomous regarding the other segment. Dependencies in various segments of a program may be in various forms like resource dependency, control depending & data depending.A dependence graph can define the relation. The program statements are defined by nodes and the directed edge with multiple labels displays the ordered relation among the statements. After analyzing the dependence graph, it can be ... Read More

How is computer Architecture developed?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:39:53
In many years, computer architecture has gone through evolutional instead of revolution changes supporting features are those that were demonstrated execution delivers.According to the figure we initiated with the Von Neumann architecture developed as a sequential machine implementing scalar information. Sequential devices enhanced from bit serial to word-parallel operations & from fixed point to floating-point operations. The Von Neumann architecture is moderate because of the sequential implementation of instructions in the program.Look ahead, Parallelism, and Pipelining − Lookahead methods were initiating to prefetch instructions to overlap I/E (instruction fetch/decode and execution) operations and to allow functional parallelism.Functional parallelism was provided ... Read More

What is Computational Model?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:37:04
It is widely observed that certain computer architecture classes and programming language classes correspond to one another. For example von Neumann architectures and imperative languages, or reduction architectures and functional languages. The corresponding architecture and language classes must have a common foundation or paradigm called a computational model.The computational model comprises the set of following three abstractions are as shown in the figure −The first abstraction identifies the basic items of computation. This is a specification of the items the computation refers to any kind of computations that can be performed on them.For instance, in the Von Neumann computational model, ... Read More

What are the elements of modern computers?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:35:07
There are various elements of modern computers which are as follows −Computing Problems − It has been long identified that the theory of computer architecture is no greater limited to the mechanism of the bare machine hardware. A modern computer is an integrated system including machine hardware, an instruction set, system software, application programs, and user interfaces. These system elements are shown in the diagram.For scientific issues in science and technology, the solutions demand complex mathematical systems and endless integer or floating-point computations. For alphanumerical issues in business and government, the solutions demand detailed transactions, huge database management, and data ... Read More

What are the elements of Bus Design in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:33:16
There are few basic guidelines or design elements that distribute to categorize and differentiate buses.Bus TypesBus lines can be reported into two generic types are dedicated and multiplexed. A dedicated bus line is permanently authorized either to one function or a physical subgroup of computer components. A multiplexed bus line is assigned too many functions based on some parameters.Method of ArbitrationIn all but the simplest systems, more than one module can require control of the bus. Therefore only one unit at a time can strongly transfer over the bus, some method of arbitration is required. Various methods can be classified ... Read More

What are the hardware components of the Computer System?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:30:02
The hardware components of a computer are classified into five groups are Input unit, Central processing unit, Output Unit, Control Unit, Arithmetic & logical unit.Input unitInput units are used by the computer to read the information. The most frequently used input devices are keyboards, mouse, joysticks, trackballs, microphones, and so on. Whenever a key is clicked, the matching letter or digit is necessarily interpreted into its equivalent binary code and communicate over a cable to either the memory or the processor.Output unitThe output unit is the reverse of the input unit. When the processor sends the output to the output ... Read More

Block Diagram of BCD Adder in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:26:29
BCD adder refers to a 4-bit binary adder that can add two 4-bit words of BCD format. The output of the addition is a BCD-format 4-bit output word. It can descript the decimal sum of the addend and augend and a carry that is created in case this sum exceeds a decimal value of 9. Therefore, BCD adders can perform decimal addition.A BCD adder is a circuit that adds two BCD digits in parallel and makes a sum digit also in BCD. A BCD adder should contain the correction logic in its internal construction. To add 0110 to the binary ... Read More

Decimal arithmetic operations in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:23:01
Decimal arithmetic operations refer to a digital function that does decimal micro-operations. This function adds or subtracts decimal numbers by forming 9’s or 10’s complement of the subtrahend. This decimal arithmetic unit first accepts coded decimal numbers and then generates output in the binary form.Algorithms that are used for arithmetic operations with decimal data and binary data are alike. If the micro-operations symbol is interpreted correctly the same flowchart can be used for both multiplication and division.The decimal numbers in BCD are stored in groups of four bits in the computer registers. When performing decimal micro-operations, every 4-bit group represents ... Read More