Found 212 Articles for Computer Programming

What is Syntax Tree?

Updated on 05-Nov-2021 10:39:10
tree in which each leaf node describes an operand & each interior node an operator. The syntax tree is shortened form of the Parse Tree.Example1 − Draw Syntax Tree for the string a + b ∗ c − d.Rules for constructing a syntax treeEach node in a syntax tree can be executed as data with multiple fields. In the node for an operator, one field recognizes the operator and the remaining field includes a pointer to the nodes for the operands. The operator is known as the label of the node. The following functions are used to create the nodes ... Read More

What is types of Intermediate Code Representation?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:36:21
The translation of the source code into the object code for the target machine, a compiler can produce a middle-level language code, which is referred to as intermediate code or intermediate text. There are three types of intermediate code representation are as follows −Postfix NotationIn postfix notation, the operator comes after an operand, i.e., the operator follows an operand.ExamplePostfix Notation for the expression (a+b) * (c+d) is ab + cd +*Postfix Notation for the expression (a*b) - (c+d) is ab* + cd + - .Syntax TreeA tree in which each leaf node describes an operand & each interior node an ... Read More

What is Postfix Notation?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:29:34
In postfix notation, the operator appears after the operands, i.e., the operator between operands is taken out & is attached after operands.Example1 − Translate a ∗ d − (b + c) into Postfix form.Solutionad ∗ bc + −Example2 − Convert a + (b ∗⊝ c) is in Postfix form.SolutionHere ⊝ represents the unary minus operator.a b c ⊝ ∗ +Example3 − Convert Postfix Expression into Infix Expression using Stack Implementationa d ∗ bc + −SolutionString SymbolsStackad ∗ bc + −AADad*(a * d)B(a * d)bC(a * d)b c+(a ∗ d)(b + c)-(a ∗ d)-(b + c)Example4 − Calculate the value for ... Read More

What is Intermediate Code Generation?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:21:28
Intermediate code can translate the source program into the machine program. Intermediate code is generated because the compiler can’t generate machine code directly in one pass. Therefore, first, it converts the source program into intermediate code, which performs efficient generation of machine code further. The intermediate code can be represented in the form of postfix notation, syntax tree, directed acyclic graph, three address codes, Quadruples, and triples.If it can divide the compiler stages into two parts, i.e., Front end & Back end, then this phase comes in between.Example of Intermediate Code Generation −Three Address Code− These are statements of form ... Read More

What is Implementation of Syntax Directed Translators?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:16:49
A syntax-directed translation scheme is a context-free grammar in which attributes are related to the grammar symbol and semantic actions enclosed within braces ({ }). These semantic actions are the subroutines that are known by the parser at the suitable time for translation. The location of the semantic actions on the right side of production denotes the time when it will be known for implementation by the parser.When it can produce a translation scheme, it should provide that an attribute value is available when the action defines it. This needed thatInherited attributes of a symbol on the right side of ... Read More

What is Types of Syntax Directed Translation Schemes?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:13:02
There are two types of Syntax directed translation schemes which are as follows −Synthesized TranslationIn this translation, values of variables on L.H.S of a production rule depend on the value of the variable on R.H.S of production rule.For Example, E → E(1) + E(2)     {E. VAL = E(1). VAL + E(2). VAL}Here, E on L.H.S of production rule can be computed by the sum of values of E(1) and E(2) which are on R.H.S of a production rule, i.e., L.H.S variable is dependent on R.H.S variables.In synthesized translation, the value of the synthesized attribute at the node is evaluated ... Read More

What is the Syntax Directed Translation?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:03:56
In syntax directed translation, along with the grammar it can identify some informal notations and these notations are known as as semantic rules.After implementing the Semantic Analysis, the source program is modified to an intermediate form.There is some information that is required by the Intermediate code generation phase to convert the semantically checked parse tree into intermediate code. But this information or attributes of variables cannot be represented alone by Context- Free Grammar.So, some semantic actions have to be attached with Context-Free grammar which helps the intermediate code generation phase to generate intermediate code.So, Attaching attributes to the variables of ... Read More

Find FIRST & FOLLOW for the following GrammarE → E + T|TT → T ∗ F|FF → (E)|id

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 10:58:27
SolutionComputation of FIRSTE → E + T|TSince FIRST (E) does not contain ε.∴ FIRST (E) = FIRST(E + T) = FIRST(E)As, E → T∴ FIRST (E) = {FIRST(T)}                                       (1)T → T ∗ F|FAs FIRST (T) does not contain ε or T does not derive ε.∴ FIRST (T) = FIRST(T ∗ F) = {FIRST(T)}As, T → F (FIRST(T) = {FIRST(F)}                      (2)F → (E)|id∴ By Rule (3)of FIRSTFIRST (F) = {(, id}    ... Read More

What is types of LR Parser in compiler design?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 11:52:15
There are three types of LR Parsers which are as follows −Simple LR Parser (SLR) − SLR represents "Simple LR Parser". It is very easy and costeffective to execute. But it fails to make a parsing table for some class of grammars, i.e., why CLR and LALR are used which implements mainly all class or type of grammars. It constructs parsing tables which helps to perform parsing of input strings. SLR Parsing can be done if context-free Grammar will be given. In LR (0), 0 means there is no Look Ahead symbol.The SLR parsing action and goto function from the ... Read More

What is Components of LR Parsers in compiler design?

Updated on 03-Nov-2021 13:19:30
LR Parser is a class of Bottom-Up Parser that is used to parse Context-Free Grammars. LR Parsing is known as LR (K) parsing. LR parser is a shift-reduce parser that creates the use of deterministic finite automata, identifying the collection of all applicable prefixes by reading the stack from bottom to top.It decides what handle, if any, is available. A viable prefix of a right sequential form is that prefix that includes a handle, but no symbol to the right of the handle. Thus, if a finite state machine that identifies viable prefixes of the right sentential form is constructed, ... Read More