Found 1718 Questions for Big Data Analytics

What is transaction processing? Explain the properties of the transaction(DBMS)

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:42:30
A transaction is a unit of database processing which contains a set of operations. For example, deposit of money, balance enquiry, reservation of tickets etc.Every transaction starts with delimiters begin transaction and terminates with end transaction delimiters. The set of operations within these two delimiters constitute one transaction.main() { begin transaction } end transactionOperationsThe transaction has two basic operations −Read(x) − Load the data-item x from database to memory. {Database is present in hard-disk}.Write(x) − Update the data-item x in memory and store it in the database.Properties of transactionDatabase system ensures ACID property, which is explained below −Atomicity − Either ... Read More

Explain division operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 09-May-2022 06:12:38
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example: Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian product ... Read More

What is heuristic optimization in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:41:54
Cost-based optimization is expensive. Heuristics are used to reduce the number of choices that must be made in a cost-based approach.RulesHeuristic optimization transforms the expression-tree by using a set of rules which improve the performance. These rules are as follows −Perform the SELECTION process foremost in the query. This should be the first action for any SQL table. By doing so, we can decrease the number of records required in the query, rather than using all the tables during the query.Perform all the projection as soon as achievable in the query. Somewhat like a selection but this method helps in ... Read More

Explain the evaluation of relational algebra expression(DBMS)

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:13:19
SQL queries are decomposed into query blocks. One query block contains a single SELECT-FROM-WHERE expression, as well as GROUP BY and HAVING clause (if any). Nested queries are split into separate query blocks.ExampleConsider an example given below −Select lastname, firstname from employee where salary>(select max(salary) from employee where deptname =CSE ; C=(select max(salary) from employee where deptname=CSE); // inner block Select lastname, firstname from employee where salary>c; //outer blockWhere C represents the result returned from the inner block.The relation algebra for the inner block is Ģmax(salary) (σdname=CSE(employee))The relation algebra for the outer blocks is Πlastname, firstname(σsalary>c(employee))The query optimizer would then ... Read More

What is join operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:45:25
Join operation combines the relation R1 and R2 with respect to a condition. It is denoted by ⋈.The different types of join operation are as follows −Theta joinNatural joinOuter join − It is further classified into following types −Left outer join.Right outer join.Full outer join.Theta joinIf we join R1 and R2 other than the equal to condition then it is called theta join/ non-equi join.ExampleConsider R1 tableRegNoBranchSection1CSEA2ECEB3CIVILA4ITB5ITATable R2NameRegNoBhanu2Priya4R1 ⋈ R2 with condition R1.regno > R2.regnoRegNoBranchSectionNameRegno3CIVILABhanu24ITBBhanu25ITABhanu25ITBPriya4In the join operation, we select those rows from the cartesian product where R1.regno>R2.regno.Join operation = select operation + cartesian product operationNatural joinIf we join R1 ... Read More

Explain cartesian product in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:44:28
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Explain intersection operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:43:31
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Explain union operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:41:46
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Explain rename operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:40:40
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Explain project operation in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:39:13
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More
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